A nationally recognized expert on cognitive development, Dr. Newcombe’s research has focused on spatial development and the development of episodic and autobiographical memory. Her work has been federally funded by NICHD and the National Science Foundation for over 30 years. She is the author of numerous scholarly chapters and articles on aspects of cognitive development, and the author or editor of five books, including Making Space: The Development of Spatial Representation and Reasoning (with Janellen Huttenlocher) published by the MIT Press in 2000.

Recent Publications: Below are a list of publications. For more information, please see Curriculum Vitae

In Press:

Brunec, I.K., Nantais, M.M., Sutton, J.E., Epstein, R.A., Newcombe, N.S. (in press). Exploration patterns shape cognitive map learning. Cognition.

Benear, S.L., Popal, H.S., Zhang, Y., Tanriverdi, B., Murty, V.P., Perlman, S.B., Olson, I.R., Newcombe, N.S. (in press). Setting boundaries: Development of neural and behavioral event cognition in early childhood. Developmental Science.

Tian, J., Ren, K., Weinraub, M., Newcombe, N.S., Vandell, D. & Gunderson, E.A. (in press). Tracing the origins of the STEM gender gap: The contribution of childhood spatial skills. Developmental Science.

Weisberg, S.M., Schinazi, V.R., Ferrario, A., & Newcombe, N.S. (in press). Evaluating the effects of a programming error on a virtual environment measure of spatial navigation behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Resnick, I.R., Goldwater, M. & Newcombe, N.S. (in press). Cross-national differences in the relation between reasoning about fraction and decimal magnitudes, reasoning proportionally, and mathematics achievement. Journal of Numerical Cognition.


Jeffery, K. J., Cheng, K., Newcombe, N. S., Bingman, V. P., & Menzel, R. (2024). Unpacking the navigation toolbox: Insights from comparative cognition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 291: 20231304.

Ngo, C.T., Buchberger, E.S., Nguyen, P.T.U., Newcombe, N.S., & Werkle-Bergner, M. Building a cumulative science of memory development. Developmental Review, 72.


Newcombe, N.S. (2023). The Search for the Cognitive Map. Proceedings for the National Academy of Sciences.

Newcombe, N.S. (2023). Constructing a canon for the science of learning. In C. E. Overson, C. M.Hakala, L. L. Kordonowy, & V. A. Benassi (Eds.), In their own words: What scholars and teachers want you to know about why and how to apply the science of learning in your academic setting (pp. 8-18). Society for the Teaching of Psychology

Nguyen, K.V., Tansan, M., & Newcombe, N.S. (2023). Studying the Development of Navigation Using Virtual Environments. Journal of Cognition and Development.

Brucato, M., Frick, A., Pichelmann, S., Nazareth, A., & Newcombe, N.S. (2023). Measuring spatial perspective taking: Analysis of four measures using item response theory. Topics in Cognitive Science, 15: 46-74.


Brucato, M., Nazareth, A. & Newcombe, N.S. (2022). Longitudinal development of cognitive mapping  from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.   

Horwath, E.A., Benear, S.L., Cowan, E., Camacho, M.C., Ngo, C.T., Newcombe, N.S., Olson, I.R., Perlman, S.B. & Murty, V.P. (2022). Children show adult-like hippocampal pattern similarity for familiar but not novel events. Brain Research. 

Newcombe, N.S., Benear, S., Ngo, C.T. & Olson, I. (2022). Memory in infancy and childhood. In M. Kahana & A. Wagner (Eds.), Oxford handbook on human memory.

Tansan, M., Nguyen, K.V. & Newcombe, N.S. (2022). Spatial navigation in childhood and aging. Annual Review of Developmental Psychology, 4.

Brucato, M., Frick, A., Nazareth, A., Pichelmann, S. & Newcombe, N.S. (2022). Measuring spatial perspective taking: Analysis of four measures using item response theory. Topics in Cognitive Science. January. 

Miller-Cotto-D., Booth, J. & Newcombe, N.S. (2022). Sketching and verbal self-explanation: Do they help middle school children solve science problems? Applied Cognitive Psychology. June. 

Newcombe, N.S. Constructing a canon for the science of learning. In Overson, C.E., Hakala, C.M., Kordonowy, L.L. & Benassi, V.A. (Eds.), In their own words: What scholars want you to know about why and how to apply the science of learning in your academic setting. APA Division 2 e-book. Newcombe Final.docx

Ren, K., Wang, Y., Weinraub, M., Newcombe, N.S. & Gunderson, E.A. (2022). Fathers’ and mothers’ praise and spatial language during play with first graders: Patterns of interaction and relations to math achievement. Developmental Psychology. June.


Benear, S. L., Ngo, C. T., Olson, I. R., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Understanding relational binding in early childhood: Interacting effects of overlap and delay. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology208, 105152. August.

Donato, F., Alberini, C. M., Amso, D., Dragoi, G., Dranovsky, A., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). The ontogeny of hippocampus-dependent memories. Journal of Neuroscience41(5), 920-926.

Hallinen, N. R., Sprague, L. N., Blair, K. P., Adler, R. M., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Finding formulas: Does active search facilitate appropriate generalization?. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications6(1), 1-18. July.

Ishikawa, T., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Why spatial is special in education, learning, and everyday activities. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications6(1), 1-5.

Nardi, D., Singer, K. J., Price, K. M., Carpenter, S. E., Bryant, J. A., Hatheway, M. A., … & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Navigating without vision: spontaneous use of terrain slant in outdoor place learning. Spatial Cognition & Computation, 1-21.

Ngo, C. T., Benear, S. L., Popal, H., Olson, I. R., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Contingency of semantic generalization on episodic specificity varies across development. Current Biology.

Ngo, C. T., Michelmann, S., Olson, I. R., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Pattern separation and pattern completion: Behaviorally separable processes?. Memory & cognition49(1), 193-205.

Ngo, C. T., & Newcombe, N. S. (2021). Relational binding and holistic retrieval in ageing. Memory29(9), 1197-1205.

Peer, M., Brunec, I. K., Newcombe, N. S., & Epstein, R. A. (2021). Structuring knowledge with cognitive maps and cognitive graphs. Trends in cognitive sciences25(1), 37-54.

Weisberg, S., Schinazi, V., Ferrario, A., & Newcombe, N. (2021). Evaluating the Effects of a Programming Error on a Virtual Environment Measure of Spatial Navigation Behavior.


Begolli, K., Booth, J., Holmes, C. & Newcombe, N.S. (2020). How many apples make a quarter? The challenge of discrete proportional formats. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 191, Article 104774.

Benear, S. L., Horwath, E. A., Cowan, E. T., Camacho, M., Ngo, C., Newcombe, N., … Murty, V. P. (2020, August 3). Children show adult-like hippocampal pattern similarity for familiar but not novel events.

Benear, S. L., Ngo, C., Newcombe, N., & Olson, I. R. (2021, June 28). Understanding relational binding in early childhood.

Green, C.S. & Newcombe, N.S. (2020). Cognitive training: How evidence, controversies, and challenges inform education policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences,7, 80-86.

Newcombe, N. S., Duval, A., Lee, S. A., Shusterman, A., & Miller, N. (2020). Getting Our Bearings: Advances in Understanding Spatial Reorientation. CogSci.

Newcombe, N.S. (2020). Early knowledge about space and quantity. In J. Lockman & C. Tamis-Lemonda (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Infant Development. Cambridge University Press.

Newcombe, N.S. (2020). Start strong, plan ahead. In Sternberg, R. (Ed.), My biggest research mistake: Adventures and misadventures in psychological research (pp. 52-54). SAGE Publications, Inc.,

Newcombe, N.S. (2020). The puzzle of spatial sex differences: Current status and prerequisites to solution. Child Development Perspectives, 14, 251-257. 

Ngo, C. T., Alm, K. H., Metoki, A., Hampton, W., Riggins, T., Newcombe, N. S., & Olson, I. R. (2020). “White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood”: Erratum. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 45.

Ngo, C. T., Benear, S. L., Popal, H., Olson, I., & Newcombe, N. S. (2020). Contingency of semantic generalization on episodic specificity: Variations across development. Available at SSRN 3732375.

Ngo, C.T., Michelmann, S., Olson, I.R. & Newcombe, N.S. (2020). Pattern separation and pattern completion: Behaviorally separable processes? Memory and Cognition  

Skilters, J., Newcombe, N.S. & Uttal, D.H. (Eds.) (2020). Spatial cognition XII. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 

Zhao, J., Sensibaugh, T., Bodenheimer, R., McNamara, T., Nazareth, A., Newcombe, N.S., Minear, M. & Klippel, A. (2020). Desktop versus immersive virtual environments: Effects on spatial learning. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 20, 4, 328-363. (URL)


Canada, K., Ngo, C.T., Newcombe, N.S., Geng, F., & Riggins, T. (2019). It’s all in the details: Relations between young children’s developing pattern separation abilities and hippocampal subfield volumes. Cerebral Cortex, 29, 3427-3433(PDF)

Jirout, J. & Newcombe, N.S. (2019). Relative magnitude as a key idea in mathematics cognition. In K.S. Mix & M. Battista (Eds.), Visualizing mathematics : The role of spatial reasoning in mathematical thought. Springer.

Nazareth, A., Huang, X., Voyer, D. & Newcombe, N.S. (2019). A meta-analysis of sex differences in human navigation skills. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26, 1503-1528. (PDF)

Nazareth, A., Newcombe, N.S., Shipley, T.F., Velazquez, M. & Weisberg, S.M. (2019). Beyond small-scale spatial skills: Navigation skills and geoscience education. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 4,  doi:10.1186/s41235-019-0167-2 (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S. (2019). Navigation and the developing brain. Journal of Experimental Biology. (URL)

Newcombe, N.S., Booth, J.L. & Gunderson, E. (2019). Spatial skills, reasoning, and mathematics. In J.Dunlosky & K. Rawson, Cambridge handbook of cognition and education. Cambridge University Press. (PDF)

Ngo, C.T., Horner, A., Newcombe, N.S. & Olson, I.R. (2019). Development of holistic episodic recollection. Psychological Science, 30, 1696-1706. (PDF)

Ngo, C.T., Newcombe, N.S. & Olson, I.R. (2019). Gain-loss framing enhances mnemonic discrimination in preschoolers. Child Development, 90, 1569-1778. (PDF)

Ngo, C.T., Lin, Y., Newcombe, N.S. & Olson, I.R. (2019). Building up and wearing down episodic memory: Mnemonic discrimination and relational binding. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  General, 148, 1463-1479. (PDF)

Resnick, I., Newcombe, N.S. & Jordan, N.C. (2019). The relation between spatial reasoning and mathematics achievement in children with mathematics learning difficulties. In P. Rasanen (Ed.), International handbook of mathematical learning difficulties. Springer. (PDF)

Weisberg, S.M., Newcombe, N.S. & Chatterjee, A. (2019). Everyday taxi drivers: Do better navigators have larger hippocampi? Cortex, 115, 280-293. (PDF)


Atit, K., Miller, D., Newcombe, N.S. & Uttal, D.H. (2018). Teachers’ spatial skills across disciplines and education levels: Exploring nationally representative data. Archives of Scientific Psychology.

Galati, A., Weisberg, S.M., Newcombe, N.S. & Avraamides, M. (2018). When gestures show us the way: Co-thought gestures selectively facilitate navigation and spatial memory. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 18, 1-30. doi: 10.1080/13875868.2017.1332064

Harris, J., George, N., Hirsh-Pasek, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2018). Where will it go? How children and adults reason about force and motion. Cognitive Development, 45, 113-124. (PDF)

Holmes, C.A., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2018). Move to learn: Integrating spatial information from multiple viewpoints. Cognition, 178, 7-25.

Möhring, W., Frick, A., Newcombe, N. S. (2018). Spatial scaling, proportional thinking, and numerical understanding in 5- to 7-year-old children. Cognitive Development, 45, 57-67. doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.12.001

Nazareth, A., Weisberg, S.M., Margulis, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2018). Charting the development of cognitive mapping. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 170, 86-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.009

Newcombe, N.S. (2018). Categorical influences on spatial bias. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.), Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 249-260). Cambridge University Press. (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S. (2018). Three kinds of spatial cognition. In J. Wixted (Ed.), Stevens’ handbook of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience, 4th edition doi: 10.1002/9781119170174.epcn315

Newcombe, N. S., Möhring, W. & Frick, A. (2018). How big is many? Development of spatial and numerical magnitude understanding. In A. Henik & W. Fias (Eds.), Heterogeneity of function in numerical cognition (pp. 157-176). San Diego: Academic Press.

Ngo, C.T., Newcombe, N.S. & Olson, I.R. (2018). The ontogeny of relational memory and pattern separation. Developmental Science, 21, e12556. doi: 10.1111/desc.12556

Schunn, C.D., Alfieri, L., Cromley, J.G., Massey, C. & Merlino, F.J. & Newcombe, N.S. (2018). Using principles of cognitive science to improve science learning in middle school: What works when and for whom? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 32, 225-240. (PDF)


Blacker, K.J., Weisberg, S.M., Newcombe, N.S. & Courtney, S.M. (2017). Keeping track of where we are: Spatial working memory in navigation. Visual Cognition, 25, 691-702.

Holmes, C.A., Marchette, S. & Newcombe, N.S. (2017). Multiple views of space: Continuous visual flow enhances small-scale spatial learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43, 851-861.

Newcombe, N.S. (2017). Harnessing spatial thinking to support STEM learning. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Reports. doi: 10.1787/7d5cae6-en

Newcombe, N.S. (2017). Cognitive development in comparative perspective: Exploring the role of  language acquisition in spatial, quantitative and memory development. In Call, J. (Ed.), APA handbook of comparative psychology. Washington, DC: APA Books. (PDF)

Resnick, I., Davatzes, A., Newcombe, N. S., & Shipley, T. F. (2017). Using analogy to learn about phenomena at scales outside of human perception. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2:21, 1-17.

Resnick, I., Davatzes, A., Newcombe, N. S., & Shipley, T. F. (2017). Using relational reasoning to learn about scientific phenomena at unfamiliar scales. Educational Psychology Review. 29, 11-25.

Resnick, I., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2017). Dealing with big numbers: Representation and understanding of magnitudes outside of human experience. Cognitive Science, 41, 1020-1041. (URL)

Twyman, A.D., Holden, M.P. & Newcombe, N.S. (2017). First direct evidence of cue integration in reorientation: A new paradigm. Cognitive Science, 42, 923-936. (PDF)

Verdine, B.N., Golinkoff, R.M., Hirsh-Pasek, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2017).Links between spatial and mathematical skills across the preschool years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 82, 1, Serial Number 124. doi: 10.1111/mono.12280

Weisberg, S.M. & Newcombe, N.S. (2017).Embodied cognition and STEM learning: Overview of a topical collection. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2.

 Xu, Y., Regier, T. & Newcombe, N.S. (2017). An adaptive cue combination model of human spatial reorientation. Cognition, 163, 56-66.


Cromley, J.G., Weisberg, S.M., Dai, T., Newcombe, N.S., Schunn, C.D., Massey, C. & Merlino, F.J. (2016). Improving middle school science learning using diagrammatic reasoning. Science Education, 100, 1184-1213. doi: 10.1002/sce.21241

Mix, K. S., Levine, S.C. & Newcombe, N.S. (2016). Development of quantitative thinking across correlated dimensions. In A. Henik (Ed.), Continuous issues in numerical cognition: How many or how much (pp. 3 – 35). San Diego: Academic Press. Mix, Levine & Newcombe FINAL MS Revised.docx

Atit, K., Weisberg, S.M., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2016). Learning to interpret topographic maps: Understanding layered spatial information. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 1, 2, 1-18.

Möhring, W., Newcombe, N. S. & Frick, A. (2016). Using mental transformation strategies for spatial scaling: Evidence from a discrimination task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42, 1473-1479. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000240 (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S. (2016). Thinking spatially in the science classroom. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.04.010 (PDF)

Weisberg, S.M. & Newcombe, N.S. (2016). How do (some) people make a cognitive map? Routes, places and working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42, 768-785. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000200  (PDF)

Ngo, C.T., Weisberg, S.M., Newcombe, N.S. & Olson, I.R. (2016). The relation between navigation strategy and associative memory: An individual differences approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42, 663-670. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000193 (PDF)

Verdine, B.N., Lucca, K.R., Golinkoff, R.M., Hirsh-Pasek, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2016).The shape of things: The origin of young children’s knowledge of the names and properties of geometric forms. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17, 142-161. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2015.1016610 (PDF)

Möhring, W., Frick, A., Newcombe, N. S., & Levine, S.C. (2016). Spatial proportional reasoning is associated with formal knowledge about fractions. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17, 67-84. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2014.996289 (PDF)

Holden, M. P., Newcombe, N.S., Resnick, I. & Shipley, T.F. (2016). Seeing like a geologist: Bayesian use of expert categories in location memory. Cognitive Science, 40, 440-454. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12229 (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S. (2016). Hand-wired not hard-wired: Natural selection for babies who can learn. In K.Cheng, How Animals Think and Feel (pp. 260-261). Santa Barbara: Greenwood.


Frick, A. & Newcombe, N.S. (2015). Young children’s perception of diagrammatic representations. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 15, 227-245. doi: 10.1080/13875868.2015.1046988 (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S., Levine, S.C. & Mix, K. S. (2015).Thinking about quantity: The intertwined development of spatial and numerical cognition. WIREs in Cognitive Science, 6, 491-505. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1369 (PDF)

Nardi, D., Holmes, C.A., Newcombe, N.S., & Weisberg, S.M. (2015). Sex differences and errors in the use of slope for navigation. Cognitive Processing, 16, 323-326. (URL)

Zosh, J.M., Verdine, B.N., Filipowicz, A., Golinkoff, R.M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Newcombe, N.S. (2015). Talking shape: Parental language with electronic vs. traditional shape sorters. Mind, Brain and Education, 9, 136-144. (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S., Weisberg, S.M., Atit, K., Jacovina, M.E., Ormand, C.J. & Shipley, T.F. (2015). In Glanzberg, M., Skilters, J., & Svenonius, P. (Eds.), The lay of the land: Sensing and representing topography. Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication, Vol. 10. 

Jirout, J. J. & Newcombe, N. S. (2015). Building Blocks for Developing Spatial Skills: Evidence From a Large, Representative U.S. Sample. Psychological Science, 26(3), 302-310. doi: 10.1177/0956797614563338 (PDF)

Holmes, C.A., Nardi, D., Newcombe, N.S., & Weisberg, S.M. (2015). Children’s use of slope to guide navigation: sex differences relate to spontaneous slope perception. Spatial Cognition & Computation, 15(3), 170-185. doi: 10.1080/13875868.2015.1015131 (PDF)

Möhring, W., Newcombe, N. S. & Frick, A. (2015). The relation between spatial thinking and proportional reasoning in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 213-220. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2015.01.005

Bergey, B.W., Cromley, J.G., Kirchgessner, A. & Newcombe, N.S. (2015). Using diagrams versus text for spaced restudy: Effects on learning in 10th grade biology classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 59-74. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12062  (PDF)

Jirout, J. & Newcombe, N.S. (2015). Building blocks for developing spatial skills: Evidence from a large representative U.S. sample. Psychological Science, 26, 302-310. doi: 10.1177/0956797614563338

Holden, M. P., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2015). Categorical biases in spatial memory: The role of certainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 473- 481. doi: 10.1037/a0038119

Mohring, W., Newcombe, N.S., Levine, S.C., & Frick, A. (2015). Spatial proportional reasoning is associated with formal knowledge about fractions. Journal of Cognition and Development. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2014.996289 (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S. (2015). Commentary: Memory development: Halfway there? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39(4), 304-305. doi: 10.1177/0165025415573647

Newcombe, N.S & Shipley, T.F. (2015). Thinking about spatial thinking: New typology, new assessments. In J. S. Gero (ed.), Studying visual and spatial reasoning for design creativity (pp. 179-192). Springer.

Verdine, B.N., Lucca, K.R., Golinkoff, R.M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Newcombe, N.S. (2015). The shape of things: the origin of young children’s knowledge of the names and properties of geometric forms. Cognition and Development. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2015.1016610. (PDF)


Frick, A., Möhring, W., Newcombe, N.S. (2014). Development of mental transformation abilities. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 536-542. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.011

Frick, A., Möhring, W., & Newcombe, N.S. (2014). Picturing perspectives: development of perspective-taking abilities in 4- to 8-year-olds. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 386. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00386. (PDF)

Janelle, D.G., Hegarty, M., Newcombe, N.S. (2014) Spatial Thinking Across the College Curriculum: A Report on a Specialist Meeting. Spatial Cognition & Computation: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14(2), 124-141, doi: 10.1080/13875868.2014.888558

Jirout, J. & Newcombe, N.S. (2014). Mazes and maps: Can young children find their way? Mind, Brain and Education, 8, 89-96. doi: 10.1111/mbe.12048

Möhring, W., Newcombe, N.S., & Frick, A. (2014). Zooming In on SpatialScaling: Preschool Children and Adults Use Mental Transformations to Scale Spaces. Developmental Psychology, Vol 50(5), 1614-1619. doi: 10.1037/a0035905.

Newcombe, N.S. (2014). Teaching space: What, how and when. In D. R. Montello, K. Grossner, K., & G. Janelle (Eds.), Space in mind: Concepts for spatial learning and education (pp. 323-334). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Newcombe, N.S. (2014) The Origins and Development of Magnitude Estimation. Ecological Psychology, 26(1-2), 147-157. doi: 10.1080/10407413.2014.875333.

Newcombe, N.S., Balcomb, F., Ferrara, K., Hansen, M. & Koski, J. (2014). Two rooms, two representations? Episodic-like memory in toddlers and preschoolers. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12162. (Request PDF)

Olson, I.R. & Newcombe, N.S. (2014). Binding together the elements of episodes: Relational memory and the developmental trajectory of the hippocampus. In P. J. Bauer & R. Fivush (Eds.), Handbook on the development of children’s memory, Vol. 1 (pp. 285-308). Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781118597705.ch13 (PDF)

Sutton, J.E. & Newcombe, N.S. (2014). The hippocampus is not a geometric module: processing environment geometry during reorientation. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8:596. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00596. (PDF)

Weisberg, S.M., Nardi, D., Newcombe, N.S., & Shipley, T.F., (2014). Up by upwest: Is slope like north? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi:10.1080/17470218.2014.880122. (Full-Text)

Weisberg, S M. & Newcombe, N.S. (2014). A slippery directional slope: Individual differences in using slope as a directional cue. Memory and Cognition, 42(4),  648-661. (URL)

Weisberg, S.M., Schinazi, V.R., Newcombe, N.S., Shipley, T.F., & Epstein, R.A. (2014). Variations in cognitive maps: Understanding individual differences in navigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(3), 669-682. doi: 10.1037/a0035261

Verdine, B.N., Golinkoff, R.M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N.S., Filipowicz, A.T. & Chang, A. (2014). Deconstructing building blocks: Preschoolers’ spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematics skills. Child Development, 85, 1062-1076. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12165

Verdine, B.N., Golinkoff, R.M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Newcombe, N.S. (2014). Finding the missing piece: Blocks, puzzles, and shapes fuel school readiness. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 3(1), 7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.tine.2014.02.005.


Cheng, K., Huttenlocher, J. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). 25 years of research on the use of geometry in spatial reorientation: A current theoretical perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 20, 1033-1054. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0416-1

Cromley, J.G., Perez, A.C., Fitzhugh, S., Tanaka, J., Newcombe, N., Shipley, T.F. & Wills, T. W. (2013). Improving students’ diagram comprehension with classroom instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 81, 511-537. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2012.745465

Cromley, J.C., Bergey, B.W., Fitzhugh, S., Newcombe, N., Wills, T.W., Shipley, T.F. & Tanaka, J. C. (2013). Effects of three diagram instruction methods on transfer of diagram comprehension skills: The critical role of inference while learning. Learning and Instruction. 26, 45-58. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.01.003

Fisher, K.R., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N.S. & Golinkoff, R.M. (2013). Taking shape: Supporting preschoolers’ acquisition of geometric knowledge through guided play. Child Development, 84, 1872-1878. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12091

Frick, A., Hansen, M. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). Development of mental rotation in 3- to 5-year-old children. Cognitive Development, 28, 386-399. doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2013.06.002

Frick, A., Ferrara, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). Using a touch screen paradigm to assess the development of mental rotation between 3 ½ and 5 ½ years of age. Cognitive Processing, 14, 117-127. doi: 10.1007/s10339-012-0534-0

Göksun, T., Goldin-Meadow, S., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2013). Individual differences in mental rotation: What does gesture tell us? Cognitive Processing, 14, 153-162. doi: 10.1007/s10339-013-0549-1

Harris, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). Understanding spatial transformations: Similarities and differences between mental rotation and mental folding. Cognitive Processing, 14, 105-115. doi: 10.1007/s10339-013-0544-6

Harris, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). A new twist on studying the development of dynamic spatial transformations: Mental paper folding in young children. Mind, Brain and Education, 7, 49-55. doi: 10.1111/mbe.12007

Holden, M. P., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2013). Location memory in the real world: Category adjustment effects in 3-dimensional space. Cognition, 128, 45-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.02.016

Koski, J., Olson, I. R. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). Tracking the eyes to see what children remember. Memory, 21, 396-407.

Nardi, D., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2013). Reorienting with terrain slope and landmarks. Memory and Cognition, 41, 214-228. doi: 10.3758/s13421-012-0254-9

Newcombe, N.S., Uttal, D.H. & Sauter, M. (2013). Spatial development. In P. Zelazo (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology, Vol. 1: Body and mind (pp. 564-590). New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199958450.001.0001

Newcombe, N.S. (2013). Cognitive development: Changing views of cognitive change. WIREs in Cognitive Science, 4, 479-491. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1245

Newcombe, N. S. (2013). Seeing Relationships: Using Spatial Thinking to Teach Science, Mathematics, and Social Studies. American Educator, 37(1), 26-31 and 40. (PDF)

Schinazi, V.R., Nardi, D., Newcombe, N.S., Shipley, T.F. & Epstein, R.A. (2013). Hippocampal size predicts rapid learning of a cognitive map in humans. Hippocampus, 23, 515-528. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22111

Twyman, A. D., Newcombe, N.S. & Gould, T.G. (2013). Malleability in the development of spatial reorientation. Developmental Psychobiology, 55, 243-255. doi: 10.1002/dev.21017

Twyman, A., D., Nardi, D. & Newcombe, N. S. (2013). Two fields are better than one: Developmental and comparative perspectives on understanding spatial reorientation. Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews, 8, 78-97. (PDF)

Uttal, D.H., Miller, D.I. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). Exploring and enhancing spatial thinking: Links to STEM achievement? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 367-373. doi: 10.1177/0963721413484756

Uttal, D.H., Meadow, N. G., Tipton, E., Hand, L. L. Alden, A. R., Warren, C. & Newcombe, N.S. (2013). The malleability of spatial skills: A meta-analysis of training studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 352-402. (URL)

Wan, X., Newcombe, N.S. & Fitzhugh, S. (2013). Elimination of sex differences in direction giving. Cognitive Processing, 14, 197-199.


Newcombe, N.S. (2012). Two ways to help students with spatial thinking in geoscience. In Kastens, K.A. & Manduca, C. M. (Eds.), GSA Special Paper 486, Earth and mind II: A Synthesis of Research on Thinking and Learning in the Geosciences (pp. 85-86). Geological Society of America Special Papers. doi: 10.1130/2012.2486(14)

Frick, A. & Newcombe, N. (2012). Getting the big picture: Development of spatial scaling abilities. Cognitive Development, 27, 270-282. doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2012.05.004

Newcombe, N.S. & Stieff, M. (2012). Six myths about spatial thinking. International Journal of Science Education, 34, 955-971. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2011.588728

Resnick, I., Shipley, T., Newcombe, N., Massey, C. & Wills, T. (2012). Examining the representation and understanding of large magnitudes using the hierarchical alignment model of analogical reasoning. In N.Miyake, D. Peebles & R.P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. (PDF)

Sutton, J. E., Twyman, A. D., Joanisse, M. F., & Newcombe, N. S. (2012). Geometry three ways: An fMRI investigation of geometric information processing during reorientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(6), 1530-1541. doi: 10.1037/a0028456


Wiener, J. M., Shettleworth, S., Bingman, V. P., Cheng, K., Healy, S., Jacobs, L. F., Jeffery, K. J., Mallot, H. A., Menzel, R., & Newcombe, N. S. (2011). Animal Navigation: A synthesis. In R. Menzel & J. Fischer (Eds.), Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition (pp. 51-76). Cambridge: MIT Press. (URL)

Ferrara, K., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N. S., Golinkoff, R. M., & Lam, W. S. (2011). Block Talk: Spatial Language During Block Play. Mind, Brain & Education, 5(3), 143-151. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-228X.2011.01122.x

Terlecki, M. S., Newcombe, N. S., & Little, M. (2011). Durable and generalized effects of spatial experience on mental rotation: Gender differences in growth patterns. Applied Cognitive Psychology; Special Issue Celebrating 25 years of Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 253-271. doi: 10.1002/acp.1774

Balcomb, F., Newcombe, N. S., & Ferrara, K. (2011). Finding where and saying where: Developmental relationships between place learning and language in the second year. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12(3), 315-331. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2010.544692

Nardi, D., Newcombe, N. S., & Shipley, T. F. (2011). The World Is Not Flat: Can People Reorient Using Slope? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(2), 354-367. doi: 10.1037/a0021614


Carlson, L., Hoffman, J.E. & Newcombe, N.S. (2010). Spatial reference frames: Examining what and how information is encoded through the integration of cognitive, behavioral, and neuroscience approaches. (Introduction to special issue). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36, 573-575.

Crawley, S.L., Newcombe, N.S. & Bingman, H. (2010). How focus at encoding affects children’s source  monitoring. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105, 273-285.

Fischer, K.W., Goswami, U., Geake, J. and the Task Force on the Future of Educational Neuroscience  (2010). The future of educational neuroscience. Mind, Brain and Education, 4, 68-80.

Grossberg, S., Meltzoff, A., Movellan, J. & Newcombe, N. (2010). Social cognition: From babies to robots. (Introduction to special issue). Neural Networks. 939.

Holden, M., Curby, K., Newcombe, N.S. & Shipley, T.F. (2010). A category adjustment approach to memory for spatial location in natural scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36(3), 590-604. doi: 10.1037/a0019293

Hölscher, C., Shipley, T.F., Belardinelli, M.O., Bateman, J. & Newcombe, N.S. (Eds.) (2010). Spatial cognition VII. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Learmonth, A.E. & Newcombe, N.S. (2010). The development of place learning in comparative perspective. In F. Dolins & R. Mitchell (Eds.), Spatial cognition: Mapping the self and space (pp. 520-538). Cambridge University Press.

Newcombe, N.S. (2010). On tending to our scientific knitting: Thinking about gender in the context of evolution. In J. Chrisler & D. McCreary (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology (pp. 259-274). Springer.

Newcombe, N.S. (2010). What is neoconstructivism? In Johnson, S.P. (Ed.), Neoconstructivism: The new science of cognitive development (pp. v-viii). New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00180.x

Newcombe, N.S. (2010). Picture this: Increasing math and science learning by improving spatial thinking. American Educator, 34(2), 29-35; 43. (URL)

Newcombe, N. S. & Frick, A. (2010). Early education for spatial intelligence: Why, what and how. Mind, Brain and Education, 4(3), 102-111. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-228X.2010.01089.x

Newcombe, N.S., Ratliff, K.R., Shallcross, W., & Twyman, A.D. (2010). Young children’s use of features to reorient is more than just associative: Further evidence against a modular view of spatial processing. Developmental Science, 13(1), 213-220. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00877.x

Sutton, J. E., Joanisse, M. F., & Newcombe, N. S. (2010). Spinning in the scanner: Neural correlates of virtual reorientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36(5), 1097-1107. doi: 10.1037/a0019938

Twyman, A.D. & Newcombe, N.S. (2010). Five reasons to doubt the existence of a geometric module. Cognitive Science, 34, 1315-1356. doi: 10.1111/j.1551-6709.2009.01081.x


Oakes, L.M., Newcombe, N.S. & Plumert, J.M. (2009). Are dynamic systems and connectionist approaches an alternative to “good old-fashioned cognitive development”? In J.P. Spencer, M.S.C. Thomas & J.L. McClelland (Eds.), Toward a unified theory of development? Connectionism and dynamic systems theory re-considered (pp. 268-285). Oxford University Press. (PDF)

Lloyd, M.E. & Newcombe, N.S. (2009). Implicit memory in childhood: Reassessing developmental invariance. In M.L. Courage & N. Cowan (Eds.), The development of memory in infancy and childhood (pp. 93-113). Hove and New York: Psychology Press.

Balcomb, F., Newcombe, N.S., & Ferrara, K. (2009). Convergence and divergence in representational systems: Place learning and language in toddlers. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Cognitive Science, 2009: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 596-601). Cognitive Science Society.

Newcombe, N. S., Ratliff, K. R., Shallcross, W., & Twyman, A. D. (2009). Is cognitive modularity necessary in an evolutionary account of development? In L. Tommasi, L. Nadel, & M. Peterson (Eds.), Cognitive biology: Evolutionary and developmental perspectives on mind, brain and behavior, chapter 6: Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology (pp. 105-126). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Twyman, A. D., Newcombe, N. S., & Gould, T. G. (2009). Of mice (Mus musculus) and toddlers (Homo sapiens): Evidence for species-general spatial reorientation. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123(3), 342-345. DOI: 10.1037/a0015400

Newcombe, N. S., Ambady, N., Eccles, J., Gomez, L., Klahr, D., Linn, M. C., Miller, K., & Mix, K. S. (2009). Psychology’s role in mathematics and science education. American Psychologist, 64(6), 538-550. DOI: 10.1037/a0014813

Nardi, D., Funk, A., Newcombe, N. S., & Shipley, T. F. (2009). Reorientation by Slope Cues in Humans. Cognitive Processing: ICSC 2009 Special Issue, 10(Supplement 2), 260-262. DOI: 10.1007/s10339-009-0279-6


Freksa, C., Newcombe, N.S., Gardenfors, P. & Wolfl, S. (Eds.) (2008). Spatial cognition VI: Learning, reasoning and talking about space. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Huttenlocher, J., Vasilyeva, M., Newcombe, N. S., & Duffy, S. (2008). Developing symbolic capacities one step at a time. Cognition, 106(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.006

Terlecki, M. S., Newcombe, N. S., & Little, M. (2008). Durable and generalized effects of spatial experience on mental rotation: Gender differences in growth patterns. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(7), 996-1013. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1420

Ratliff, K. R. & Newcombe, N. S. (2008). Is language necessary for human spatial reorientation? Reconsidering evidence from dual task paradigms. Cognitive Psychology, 56(2), 142-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2007.06.002

Ratliff, K. R. & Newcombe, N. S. (2008). Reorienting when cues conflict: Evidence for an adaptive-combination view. Psychological Science, 19(12), 1301-1307. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02239.x

Wright, R., Thompson, W. L., Ganis, G., Newcombe, N. S., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2008). Training generalized spatial skills. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15(4), 763-771. DOI: 10.3758/PBR.15.4.763

Learmonth, A. E., Newcombe, N. S., Sheridan, N., & Jones, M. (2008). Why size counts: Children’s spatial reorientation in large and small enclosures. Developmental Science, 11(3), 414-426.


Newcombe, N.S., Lloyd, M.E. & Ratliff, K.R. (2007). Development of episodic and autobiographical memory: A cognitive neuroscience perspective. In R.V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 35, pp. 37-85). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

Newcombe, N. S. & Ratliff, K. R. (2007). Explaining the development of spatial reorientation: Modularity-plus-language versus the emergence of adaptive combination. In J. M. Plumert & J. P. Spencer (Eds.), The emerging spatial mind (pp. 53-76). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Newcombe, N. S. & Chiang, N. (2007). Learning geographical information from hypothetical maps. Memory and Cognition, 35(5), 895-909. (PDF)

Newcombe, N.S. & Crawley, S.L. (2007). To have and have not: What do we mean when we talk about long-term memory development? In L.M. Oakes & P.J. Bauer (Eds.), Short- and long-term memory in infancy and early childhood: Taking the first steps toward remembering. Oxford University Press.

Newcombe, N. S. (2007). Psychology’s role in math and science. Monitor on Psychology, 38(10), 8.


Cheng, K. & Newcombe, N. S. (2006). Geometry, features, and orientation in vertebrate animals: A pictorial review. In M. F. Brown & R. G. Cook (Eds.), Animal Spatial Cognition: Comparative, Neural & Computational Approaches. In cooperation with Comparative Cognition Press. (URL)

Newcombe, N.S. & Huttenlocher, J. (2006). Development of spatial cognition. In D. Kuhn & R.S. Siegler (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (6th edition, pp. 734-776). John Wiley and Sons.


Dziembowski, Z. & Newcombe, N.S. (2005). Transfer of mathematical problem-solving procedures acquired through physical science instruction: When you don’t see it, why not? In J. Mestre (Ed.), Transfer of learning from a modern multidisciplinary perspective(pp. 337-356). In Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Newcombe, N.S. (2005). Evidence for and against a geometric module: The roles of language and action. In J. Rieser, J. Lockman & C. Nelson (Eds.), Action as an organizer of learning and development. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Vol. 33 (pp. 221-241). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Newcombe, N.S. & Learmonth, A.E. (2005). The development of spatial competence. In P. Shah & A. Miyake (Eds.), Handbook of visuospatial thinking (pp. 213-256). Cambridge University Press.

Terlecki, M. S. & Newcombe, N. S. (2005). How important Is the digital divide? Relating computer and videogame usage to spatial ability. Sex Roles, 53(5/6), 433-441. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-005-6765-0


Newcombe, N.S. & Sluzenski, J. (2004). Starting points and change in early spatial development. In G. Allen (Ed.), Remembering where (pp. 25-40). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Newcombe, N.S. (2003). Development. In L. Nadel (Ed.), The encyclopedia of cognitive science (pp. 955-959. Nature Publishing Group, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (UK).


Newcombe, N.S. (2002). Biology is to medicine as psychology is to education: True or false? In D.F. Halpern & M.D. Hakel (Eds.), Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond(pp. 9-18). New Directions for Teaching and Learning series, Number 89. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Newcombe, N.S. (2002). Spatial cognition. In D. Medin (Ed.), Cognition Volume, Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology, third edition (pp. 113-163). New York: John Wiley.

Newcombe, N. S., Mathason, L. & Terlecki, M. (2002). Maximization of spatial competence: More important than finding the cause of sex differences. In A. McGillicuddy-De Lisi & R. De Lisi (Eds.), Biology, society and behavior: The development of sex differences in cognition (pp. 183-206). Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.


Newcombe, N. S. & Huttenlocher, J. (2000). Making space: The development of spatial representation and reasoning. MIT Press.

Newcombe, N.S. (2000). Early experience matters for spatial development (but different kinds at different times). In N. A. Fox, L. A. Leavitt & J. Warhol (Eds.), The role of early experience in infant development (pp. 165-186). Pediatric Round Table, Johnson and Johnson Pediatric Institute.


Huttenlocher, J., Newcombe, N. S., & Vasilyeva, M. (1999). Spatial scaling in young children. Psychological Science, 10(5), 393-398. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9280.00175


Newcombe, N. (1997). New perspectives on spatial representation: What different tasks tell us about how people remember location. In N. Foreman & R. Gillett (Eds.), Interacting with the environment: A handbook of spatial paradigms and methodologies (pp. 85-102). Psychology Press.


Newcombe, N. (1996). Child development: Change over time. New York: HarperCollins. (8th edition of Child development and personality by P. Mussen, J. Conger, J. Kagan & A. Huston.)


Baenninger, M. & Newcombe, N. S. (1995). Environmental input to the development of sex related differences in spatial and mathematical ability. Learning and Individual Differences, 7(4), 363-379. DOI: 10.1016/1041-6080(95)90007-1


Newcombe, N. (1989). The development of spatial perspective taking. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 22), (pp. 203-247).  Academic Press. (PDF)

Newcombe, N. & Baenninger, M. A. (1989).  Biological change and cognitive ability in adolescence.  In G. Adams, R. Montemayor, & T. Gullotta (Eds.), Advances in adolescent development (Vol. 1), (pp. 168-191). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Baenninger, M. & Newcombe, N. S. (1989). The role of experience on spatial test performance: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 20(5/6), 327-344. DOI: 10.1007/BF00287729


Branch, C. W. & Newcombe, N. (1988).  The development of racial attitudes in black children.  In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 5) (pp. 125-154).  Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.


Newcombe, N. & Dubas, J.S. (1986).  Individual differences in cognitive ability:  Are they related to timing of puberty?  In R.M. Lerner & T.T. Foch (Eds.), Biological-psychosocial interactions in early adolescence: A life-span perspective, (pp. 249-302).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Newcombe, N. (1985).  Methods for the study of spatial representation.  In R. Cohen (Ed.), The development of spatial cognition, (pp. 277-300). Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Huttenlocher, J. & Newcombe, N. (1984).  The child’s representation of information about location.  In C. Sophian (Ed.), Origins of cognitive skills, (pp. 81-111).  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Newcombe, N. (1982).  Sex-related differences in spatial ability:  Problems and gaps in current approaches.  In M. Potegal (Ed.), Spatial abilities:  Development and physiological foundations, (pp. 223-250). New York: Academic Press.

Newcombe, N. (1982).  Spatial cognition and cognitive development.  In R. Cohen (Ed.), Children’s conceptions of spatial relationships, (pp. 65-81).  (New Directions for Child Development series).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Newcombe, N. & Lerner, J.C. (1982).  Britain between the wars: the historical context of Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment.  Psychiatry, 45(1), 1-12.


Liben, L.S., Patterson, A.H., & Newcombe, N. (Eds.) (1981). Spatial representation and behavior across the life span.  New York:  Academic Press.

Newcombe, N. (1981).  Spatial representation and behavior:  Retrospect and prospect.  In Liben, L.S., Patterson, A.H., & Newcombe, N. (Eds.), Spatial representation and behavior across the life span, (pp. 373-388).  New York:  Academic Press.