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The Historian's Craft Stephen Pahides Posts

Final Bibliography

References

Goldstein, D. (2020, May 09). The Class Divide: Remote Learning at 2 Schools, Private and Public. Retrieved December 08, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/09/us/coronavirus-public-private-school.html?action=click

“Operating Schools during COVID-19: CDC’s Considerations.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/schools.html.

Goldstein, Dana. “Research Shows Students Falling Months Behind During Virus Disruptions.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 June 2020, www.nytimes.com/2020/06/05/us/coronavirus-education-lost-learning.html.

Thomas, Christopher J. “Coronavirus and Challenging Times for Education in Developing Countries.” Brookings, Brookings, 14 Apr. 2020, www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2020/04/13/coronavirus-and-challenging-times-for-education-in-developing-countries/.

Lewison, K. (2020, June 24). What is the Impact of Coronavirus on Education? Retrieved October 01, 2020, from https://www.uopeople.edu/blog/impact-of-coronavirus-on-education/

Mineo, L. (2020, April 10). The pandemic’s impact on education. Retrieved September 27, 2020, from https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/04/the-pandemics-impact-on-education/

Hanna, M., & Graham, K. (2020, November 19). As COVID-19 cases surge, should schools stay open? Around the Philly region, approaches vary wildly. Retrieved December 08, 2020, from https://www.inquirer.com/education/school-closings-coronavirus-montgomery-county-philadelphia-pa-nj-20201118.html

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Blog Post #10

Human’s have the tendency to think they can predict the future, it happens in everything and everyone. We often neglect to account for two valuable variables when discussing current events. Time and change, two things that no one can viably predict for the future. Thinking about this year especially, we are winding down to the year anniversary of quarantine and the first weeks of the pandemic. A year ago this in November we were a year from the election, no one knew the pandemic would occur and the world seemed normal. I state this in order to highlight how much time can induce change, and when we look further down the line from 4 years from now to 50 to 100, predicting what the world will be like and what are history will be written down as is an inexact science. So in 4 years what will I and the majority of Americans believe t0 have occurred in 2020? I think in 4 years we will see the effects of a Joe Biden Presidency, and what i hope is that the country is more unified in it’s stance on the economy and racial justice. In 50 years i hope that history looks back at 2020 as a wake up call, and is the year that caused a massive societal shift in progressing human civilization forward, hopefully we will not experience another pandemic in 50 years but i believe if we had to 2020 would be the experience the world drawls on in order to combat whatever disease plagues humanity. looking forward 100 years, you start to get into uncharted waters, we have no real clear idea on where the world will be in 100 years. Just thinking back to 1920, we still had world war 2, going to the moon, and the cold war that all happened within 100 years or less. So predicting the future is inexact, but in 100 years we will probably have to face another pandemic, and how the world records today’s history is going to go a long way in helping humans 100 years from now deal with the inevitability of a new pandemic.

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Blog Post #9

Option #2: Through my life I have been alive for 5 Presidential elections including the 2020 election. As I have grown up I find myself caring more and more about the Presidential election, I have become more informed on what exactly a Presidential candidate campaigns for and the impact that electing representatives have on all ours lives. The first election I have any real memory of is the 2008 election, I remember my parents watching the news on election night, and watching President Obama’s acceptance speech. The news at the time centered around President Obama being the first African-American president in United States history. It was a defining moment in my early childhood and something I vividly remember feeling proud about. The next election i experienced was 2012 and i have a clearer memory of this election then 2008, i remember my friends mom put up a sign on their lawn talking about Benghazi and showing support for candidate Mitt Romney. At that time it seemed like the country was starting to divided itself further into strict political lines, obviously President Obama won that election. The last election I experienced was 2016, and I feel that the majority of Americans now looking back realize how this Presidential race was unlike any other. Since there was no incumbent to defeat, both parties through their conventions had to nominate a candidate for presidential election. Quickly both sides turned their campaigns into character derogation and smear campaigns on one another, i think the 2016 election showed just how divided our country had become after 8 years of the the Obama presidency. In the context of the 2020 election it seems as if that division is only amplified, with both sides calling each other names and presenting falsified information about one another. It seems that in the current political climate that deciding on what is true and what is false is harder than ever given our current state as a society. The amount of misinformation and outright lies provided by both sides has created a hostile environment for many American voters. With the current President instituting that he will challenge the validity of the election based off mail in ballots, it seems like the country is in a fight for democracy and majority rule. Moving forward i feel scared that whichever sides wins the election, there will be a massive group of people who oppose or do not support the election results. I think in the future we will look at the 2o20 election as one of the most hotly contested and politically divided elections in United States history. My only hope as a United States citizen and voter is that we can attempt to move forward after the election regardless of outcome and proceed as a bipartisan president who has the best interests of the American people at heart. Whoever that candidate is i feel the country must set aside differences in order to tackle bigger societal issues such as the pandemic and social justice reform.

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Blog post #8

When we arrived on campus in August I feel that the majority of students and faculty at the University anticipated an early shutdown of in person class for the fall. It feel unfortunate as a transfer to come to a new school and within a few weeks have to transition back to online instruction. When the first day of class arrived you asked the class how long we all expected to be in person. We all raised our hands and some people raised that we would be here till November or October, but the majority of the class seemed to guess that we would return to fully online instruction sometime in September. I think from that day on the idea that in person class wasn’t going to last became very apparent early on. When the announcement that classes would not resume to in person instruction, the entirety of the college experienced once again shifted back to online instruction. Knowing that this was somewhat inevitable made the shock of the email everyone received a lot less serious then what we all experienced last spring when the majority of schools told their students not to come back from spring break, I still feel however that on that first day there was some sense of hope or maybe appreciation for Temple’s effort to have in person class, but when everyone arrived on campus it seemed very apparent that normal college life would have to put once again be put on hold due to the covid 19 pandemic.

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Blog Post #7 What do we owe our historical subjects?

In reading “When Subjects Don’t Come Out” I learned the value in respecting your historical subject with trying to tie together a narrative history and perspective on a historical event. In relation to my final project i feel that by reading about the obstacles that come along with proper historical representation, I have become better equipped to do my historical subjects justice. In “When Subjects Don’t Come Out” Tucker expressed how it was difficult to interview subjects on their sexuality if they were not comfortable disclosing that information. What i gathered from Tucker’s frustration was the value in respecting your subjects and their willingness to disclose personal information. When speaking about history it is best not to cast aspersions on what you may feel as a historian as being fact, rather it is important that we gather all valid information the best we can and use it to justify our point of view on the events. Connecting this to my final project, my historical subjects are students of today. Me being one of them, I feel it is important that for my final project i get the opinions of students feeling the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic and asking the question of how this all effects them. My opinions aside, i am intrigued to see how the vast majority of student have been feeling about school closures, I am sure that there are many differing opinions and i want to do what is right and present the necessary information that expresses the opinions of students. When I am researching how the pandemic has affected students, it would be wise that i research into student opinion polls, and try to reflect some of the social commentary on the current state of education amidst what is transpiring this year. From what I gathered from Tucker supports the need for the representation of the opinions and viewpoints of historical subjects, for her all her subjects were from the 1940’s. Which then became an issue as tracking down interviews from 60 years ago can be challenging as some people have become deceased and can no longer share what happened. In my case because i am highlighting issues of today i do not anticipate having to overcome the obstacle of gathering public opinions. I must do the proper job then of sourcing through what perspectives support the general overview and topic of my final project.

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Midterm Final Project Proposal

My Research Question: “How is education being affected around the world due to the covid-19 pandemic?”

For my final project I will be investigating the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on education throughout the world. I also will focus on how the pandemic has affected students of inequality and try to address what we can learn about our education system in a time like this. Since my final project takes place currently it has been a challenge to find primary sources on the events of the past 10 months. However statistics have shown that education has been greatly effected due to the pandemic, the societal structure that school creates is responsible for the care of millions of students. Due to social distancing measures the classroom has turned virtual, and students are no long under the care or supervision of educators during the day time. The pandemic in turn has put millions of at risk youth being in unstable environments while unable to attend school to get the support they desperately need. The pandemic also has an effect on educators because teaching is their livelihood and without in person instruction many educators are out of work. When schools can properly function like they normally would, the fabric of community is ripped throughout the world, and it is of my interest to find out more on how the world is handling this situation.

For my format I plan on presenting my final project in the form of a podcast. I will attach a breakdown of what I plan on presenting to the listener, I think because my topic encompasses a lot of different problems it will suit me best to make a podcast. From the podcasts I have listened to I feel it is a great way to be informative while seeming interesting and educational.

Secondary source #1:

The Harvard Gazette: This article in the Harvard Gazette contains a Q&A with former secretary of education for Massachusetts, Paul Reville. In this Q&A Reville discusses how school closures due to the pandemic has increased the sense of urgency for major education reform as the pandemic in Reville’s opinion has brought to light the many inequalities and short comings in the education system in the United States. This source will help me present an expert opinion on my subject matter into my final project.

Mineo, L. (2020, April 10). The pandemic’s impact on education. Retrieved September 27, 2020, from https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/04/the-pandemics-impact-on-education/

Secondary source #2:

High Point University’s summarization of what are some of the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on education. This source bring to light what has changed in education since the start of the pandemic. I will use this source to bring up some points and introduce the scale of how severely education is being affected to the virus.

Lewison, K. (2020, June 24). What is the Impact of Coronavirus on Education? Retrieved October 01, 2020, from https://www.uopeople.edu/blog/impact-of-coronavirus-on-education/

Primary sources:

“Operating Schools during COVID-19: CDC’s Considerations.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/schools.html.

Goldstein, Dana. “Research Shows Students Falling Months Behind During Virus Disruptions.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 June 2020, www.nytimes.com/2020/06/05/us/coronavirus-education-lost-learning.html.

Thomas, Christopher J. “Coronavirus and Challenging Times for Education in Developing Countries.” Brookings, Brookings, 14 Apr. 2020, www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2020/04/13/coronavirus-and-challenging-times-for-education-in-developing-countries/.

For my three primary sources i chose sources that serve as informational records of how coronavirus is being handled. My first source is from the CDC which is the guidelines the CDC has given to schools on how they should principle proper social distancing measures and covid safety precautions. My second source is from the New York times chronicling the accounts of students who have fallen behind in their education due to the covid-19 pandemic. My third and final source is an article which presents the statistics from the united nations on school closings around the world. I feel these three sources will serve me well as they provide statistical backing to what I plan on discussing.

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Blog Post #6 Creating a Narrative

While studying the 1918 pandemic influenza the events which transpired over 100 years ago seem ever so relevant in the year 2020 with the Covid-19 pandemic. While there are some staunch differences that 100 years of technological innovation induces, similar events like mask mandates, lockdowns, and quarantining were put into practice in 1918. Studying the influenza pandemic and comparing it to that of today, the spread of information was a lot slower than it is now. When Covid was pronounced a pandemic by the CDC the world knew instantly from twitter, while in 1918 new traveled slower. The initial spread of the virus could was not reported soon enough to prevent the mass spread that followed. The numbers of the pandemic influenza are much greater than that of Covid-19, the mortality rate being as high as it was in 1918 makes the events of today seem more manageable. The narrative of 1918 is that a pandemic of that magnitude could not have occurred at a worse time. The world was nearing the end of a brutal 4 year conflict, the likes of which the world had never seen. When the soldiers came back the numbers of cases spiked causing more hysteria, all the while basic lines of communication were far less effective that what we have today. I think in studying the 1918 pandemic we can learn that while we have not handled the covid-19 pandemic as best we could, there has been a significant increase in technology and ability in distributing information to the masses.

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Blog Post #5 Primary Sources

For my two primary sources that I am reviewing as possible sources for my final project are a Harvard Gazette article which includes a Q&A from Paul Reville Harvard’s Professor of Practice of Educational Policy and Administration at Harvard Graduate School Of Education. In this article Reville is interviewed on how the Coronavirus as brought to light a lot of the inequalities in the United States public education system.

My Second Source is a overview on the several factors for all schools by the University Of The People’s public database. This article has provided me key points to address in my final project. I think that in order to conduct proper research for the topic of my final project, i feel it is important that i stress that the virus has affected education on all sides. Education provides public services for millions of families, and students worldwide rely on school for caretaking throughout the day. With many parents going back to work, schools become vital for the upcoming year and assessing how schools have handled it will bring attention to the societal affects education provides.

First Source: Mineo, L. (2020, April 10). The pandemic’s impact on education. Retrieved September 27, 2020, from https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/04/the-pandemics-impact-on-education/

Second Source: Lewison, K. (2020, June 24). What is the Impact of Coronavirus on Education? Retrieved October 01, 2020, from https://www.uopeople.edu/blog/impact-of-coronavirus-on-education/

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Blog Post #4 Asking Good Questions

What i am choosing to investigate is how covid-19 has impacted education and schooling throughout the world. Questions like what safety measures have schools taken to stop the spread of Covid-19 among their students. How have children from poverty and low income been able to get to school during this turbulent time. What differences in education and covid prevention have each country experienced during the last seven months. These investigating principles will help me research the various different effects Covid-19 has had on our education systems throughout the world. My central research question will be focused around whether the pandemic has changed the way we educate out youth for good, or will schools eventually get back to how they used to operate. Being an education major i am very invested into learning more about my field, and understanding that school and traditional education has taken a back seat during the pandemic. I want to learn more about the plans that are already in place moving forward with how schools might handle and outbreak, and assessing the statistics and data from schools who have already reopened. I think my topic will have a lot to do with current events and will relate well to the world around us. Seeing as we have just moved online around 2 weeks ago, i already as a student myself have experienced the changes to education brought on by a global pandemic.

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Blog Post #3

Lauren DeCicca/Getty Images

For my research project i would like to investigate how the Covid-19 pandemic has affected education throughout the world. While the pandemic has altered many aspects of day to day life, i am interested to learn more about how schools around the world are protecting their students from the virus. Being an education major i want to prepare myself for the world i am about to enter into, and i feel that the picture selected shows how far schools have gone in order to protect their students. In the picture above you can see two students in make shift bubbles in a school in China, i think this photo is quite sad and depicts the reality that all teachers face during this difficult time. The way in which school has changed to mainly online coursework and little to no in person teaching, makes me worry about my job’s value in the future. I find myself asking questions like “will teaching ever go back to the way it was?” “are teachers now obsolete in a technological age?”. These questions along with many other are cause for concern around the world, but i believe that pandemic has also taught us what we take fro granted. It’s like the same old saying you don’t realize you had something until you lose it, well in a way i feel that in person teaching is something we all took for granted. I think the whole process of learning is impeded from online lecturing, because the classroom thrives off human interaction, and in many way zoom just cannot replicate that. So while the world goes back to school and takes the proper measures to ensure student safety, the affects that the pandemic has on our schools can teach us a lot about the affects of the virus as well as our need for human interaction.

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