An Indepth Breakdown: The Second Treatise of Government – Of Paternal Power

—–   Blue represents Locke’s main idea from each section

—–   Red represents my analysis of the text

Sect. 52. IT may perhaps be censured as an impertinent criticism, in a discourse of this nature, to find fault with words and names, that have obtained in the world: and yet possibly it may not be amiss to offer new ones, when the old are apt to lead men into mistakes, as this of paternal power probably has done, which seems so to place the power of parents over their children wholly in the father, as if the mother had no share in it; whereas, if we consult reason or revelation, we shall find, she hath an equal title. This may give one reason to ask, whether this might not be more properly called parental power? for whatever obligation nature and the right of generation lays on children, it must certainly bind them equal to both the concurrent causes of it. And accordingly we see the positive law of God every where joins them together, without distinction, when it commands the obedience of children, Honour thy father and thy mother, Exod. xx. 12. Whosoever curseth his father or his mother, Lev. xx. 9. Ye shall fear every man his mother and his father, Lev. xix. 3. Children, obey your parents, &c. Eph. vi. 1. is the stile of the Old and New Testament.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

Mother touches newborn baby held by its father. Photography. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/132_1283458/1/132_1283458/cite. Accessed 23 Apr 2020.

Section 52 is about how a mother and fathers role in raising a child is equal, and that neither has power over the other. This image is representative of that as both parents are showing affection for the child equally.

Sect. 53. Had but this one thing been well considered, without looking any deeper into the matter, it might perhaps have kept men from running into those gross mistakes, they have made, about this power of parents; which, however it might, without any great harshness, bear the name of absolute dominion, and regal authority, when under the title of paternal power it seemed appropriated to the father, would yet have founded but oddly, and in the very name shewn the absurdity, if this supposed absolute power over children had been called parental; and thereby have discovered, that it belonged to the mother too: for it will but very ill serve the turn of those men, who contend so much for the absolute power and authority of the fatherhood, as they call it, that the mother should have any share in it; and it would have but ill supported the monarchy they contend for, when by the very name it appeared, that that fundamental authority, from whence they would derive their government of a single person only, was not placed in one, but two persons jointly. But to let this of names pass.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

King Henry II; King Richard I (‘the Lionheart’); King John; King Henry III. Fine Art. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/114_1761757/1/114_1761757/cite. Accessed 23 Apr 2020.

Section 53 speaks on what is modernly called toxic masculinity, which is where tend to feel like they have more power over women. This ties to this picture because kings have lots of power and are often portrayed as having power trips.

Sect. 54. Though I have said above, Chap. II. That all men by nature are equal, I cannot be supposed to understand all sorts of equality: age or virtue may give men a just precedency: excellency of parts and merit may place others above the common level: birth may subject some, and alliance or benefits others, to pay an observance to those to whom nature, gratitude, or other respects, may have made it due: and yet all this consists with the equality, which all men are in, in respect of jurisdiction or dominion one over another; which was the equality I there spoke of, as proper to the business in hand, being that equal right, that every man hath, to his natural freedom, without being subjected to the will or authority of any other man.

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via GIPHY

Bibliography:

“Arnold Schwarzenegger Predator GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY.” GIPHY, GIPHY, 20 Apr. 2018, giphy.com/gifs/arnold-schwarzenegger-predator-carl-weathers-BvsKJXGzqfNPq/embed.

In section 54, Locke speaks about how every man is created equal and has no power over one another. This popular gif/meme from the movie Predator represents this passage well as it is commonly used to refer to equality, and things that everyone can agree on.

Sect. 55. Children, I confess, are not born in this full state of equality, though they are born to it. Their parents have a sort of rule and jurisdiction over them, when they come into the world, and for some time after; but it is but a temporary one. The bonds of this subjection are like the swaddling clothes they are wrapt up in, and supported by, in the weakness of their infancy: age and reason as they grow up, loosen them, till at length they drop quite off, and leave a man at his own free disposal.

Bibliography:

Mundinger, Robert. “Brace Yourselves, Dallas Is Going Through Puberty.” D Magazine, D Magazine, 12 Aug. 2015, www.dmagazine.com/urbanism-transportation/2015/08/brace-yourselves-dallas-is-going-through-puberty/.

This section states that children are at first born very dependent on their parents but as they grow and mature, they gain equality to the adults in society. The picture I annotated connects to this section because it shows the progression of every human where the first half of progression illustrated you are governed by your parents, and the second you are mature enough to be considered equals to your parents.

Sect. 56. Adam was created a perfect man, his body and mind in full possession of their strength and reason, and so was capable, from the first instant of his being to provide for his own support and preservation, and govern his actions according to the dictates of the law of reason which God had implanted in him. From him the world is peopled with his descendants, who are all born infants, weak and helpless, without knowledge or understanding: but to supply the defects of this imperfect state, till the improvement of growth and age hath removed them, Adam and Eve, and after them all parents were, by the law of nature, under an obligation to preserve, nourish, and educate the children they had begotten; not as their own workmanship, but the workmanship of their own maker, the Almighty, to whom they were to be accountable for them.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

Pregnant mother reading to her child. Photography. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/132_1280931/1/132_1280931/cite. Accessed 23 Apr 2020.

Section 56 states that it is a parents job to take care of a child until they are able to take care of themselves. This includes things such as teaching them what is right or wrong, what is good to eat and simple tasks like potty training. The picture that I annotated represents this because the mother is getting an early start on teaching her child a basic skill like reading.

Sect. 57. The law, that was to govern Adam, was the same that was to govern all his posterity, the law of reason. But his offspring having another way of entrance into the world, different from him, by a natural birth, that produced them ignorant and without the use of reason, they were not presently under that law; for no body can be under a law, which is not promulgated to him; and this law being promulgated or made known by reason only, he that is not come to the use of his reason, cannot be said to be under this law; and Adam’s children, being not presently as soon as born under this law of reason, were not presently free: for law, in its true notion, is not so much the limitation as the direction of a free and intelligent agent to his proper interest, and prescribes no farther than is for the general good of those under that law: could they be happier without it, the law, as an useless thing, would of itself vanish; and that ill deserves the name of confinement which hedges us in only from bogs and precipices. So that, however it may be mistaken, the end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom: for in all the states of created beings capable of laws, where there is no law, there is no freedom: for liberty is, to be free from restraint and violence from others; which cannot be, where there is no law: but freedom is not, as we are told, a liberty for every man to do what he lists: (for who could be free, when every other man’s humour might domineer over him?) but a liberty to dispose, and order as he lists, his person, actions, possessions, and his whole property, within the allowance of those laws under which he is, and therein not to be subject to the arbitrary will of another, but freely follow his own.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

JUDGE STANDING WITH GAVEL IN COURTROOM. Photography. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/300_1824382/1/300_1824382/cite. Accessed 23 Apr 2020.

Section 57 states that there cannot be individual freedom and equality unless their is law that establishes reason. This would inhibit anyone of having power over another. The picture annotated represents such law as it is a picture of a judge who represents justice.

Sect. 58. The power, then, that parents have over their children, arises from that duty which is incumbent on them, to take care of their off-spring, during the imperfect state of childhood. To inform the mind, and govern the actions of their yet ignorant nonage, till reason shall take its place, and ease them of that trouble, is what the children want, and the parents are bound to: for God having given man an understanding to direct his actions, has allowed him a freedom of will, and liberty of acting, as properly belonging thereunto, within the bounds of that law he is under. But whilst he is in an estate, wherein he has not understanding of his own to direct his will, he is not to have any will of his own to follow: he that understands for him, must will for him too; he must prescribe to his will, and regulate his actions; but when he comes to the estate that made his father a freeman, the son is a freeman too.

Bibliography:

Rinere, Monique. “5 Tips for Parents About to Send Their Kids Off to College.” Brightly, 29 Aug. 2019, www.readbrightly.com/tips-parents-send-kids-off-college/.

Section 58 states that the reason that a parent has power over a child is because it is their job to raise them into a well rounded adult. Locke also states here that the child becomes a “freeman” when the father became one. I connected this to a young adult moving on to college as this is the first step for many to independence.

Sect. 59. This holds in all the laws a man is under, whether natural or civil. Is a man under the law of nature? What made him free of that law? what gave him a free disposing of his property, according to his own will, within the compass of that law? I answer, a state of maturity wherein he might be supposed capable to know that law, that so he might keep his actions within the bounds of it. When he has acquired that state, he is presumed to know how far that law is to be his guide, and how far he may make use of his freedom, and so comes to have it; till then, some body else must guide him, who is presumed to know how far the law allows a liberty. If such a state of reason, such an age of discretion made him free, the same shall make his son free too. Is a man under the law of England? What made him free of that law? that is, to have the liberty to dispose of his actions and possessions according to his own will, within the permission of that law? A capacity of knowing that law; which is supposed by that law, at the age of one and twenty years, and in some cases sooner. If this made the father free, it shall make the son free too. Till then we see the law allows the son to have no will, but he is to be guided by the will of his father or guardian, who is to understand for him. And if the father die, and fail to substitute a deputy in his trust; if he hath not provided a tutor, to govern his son, during his minority, during his want of understanding, the law takes care to do it; some other must govern him, and be a will to him, till he hath attained to a state of freedom, and his understanding be fit to take the government of his will. But after that, the father and son are equally free as much as tutor and pupil after nonage; equally subjects of the same law together, without any dominion left in the father over the life, liberty, or estate of his son, whether they be only in the state and under the law of nature, or under the positive laws of an established government.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.. Photography. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/300_1828181/1/300_1828181/cite. Accessed 24 Apr 2020.

Locke adds to his thoughts of what should be taught to a growing adult by saying that the parent is responsible for teaching law and reason, so that the child is equipped to guide their own life according to free will and law responsibly. The image annotated connects to this because it depicts Abraham Lincoln, a beloved former president who knows a lot about law with one of his sons.

Sect. 60. But if, through defects that may happen out of the ordinary course of nature, any one comes not to such a degree of reason, wherein he might be supposed capable of knowing the law, and so living within the rules of it, he is never capable of being a free man, he is never let loose to the disposure of his own will (because he knows no bounds to it, has not understanding, its proper guide) but is continued under the tuition and government of others, all the time his own understanding is uncapable of that charge. And so lunatics and ideots are never set free from the government of their parents;

children, who are not as yet come unto those years whereat they may have; and innocents which are excluded by a natural defect from ever having; thirdly, madmen, which for the present cannot possibly have the use of right reason to guide themselves, have for their guide, the reason that guideth other men which are tutors over them, to seek and procure their good for them,

says Hooker, Eccl. Pol. lib. i. sec. 7. All which seems no more than that duty, which God and nature has laid on man, as well as other creatures, to preserve their offspring, till they can be able to shift for themselves, and will scarce amount to an instance or proof of parents regal authority.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Jail cell. Photography. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/139_1920075/1/139_1920075/cite. Accessed 24 Apr 2020.

Locke states in section 60 that a man deemed to have no reason or understanding of law should not be free. My interpretation of this is that Locke is speaking of criminal peoples who do not follow laws should be prisoned. The picture above of the jail cell would be where these people were to be kept until they develop reason.

Sect. 61. Thus we are born free, as we are born rational; not that we have actually the exercise of either: age, that brings one, brings with it the other too. And thus we see how natural freedom and subjection to parents may consist together, and are both founded on the same principle. A child is free by his father’s title, by his father’s understanding, which is to govern him till he hath it of his own. The freedom of a man at years of discretion, and the subjection of a child to his parents, whilst yet short of that age, are so consistent, and so distinguishable, that the most blinded contenders for monarchy, by right of fatherhood, cannot miss this difference; the most obstinate cannot but allow their consistency: for were their doctrine all true, were the right heir of Adam now known, and by that title settled a monarch in his throne, invested with all the absolute unlimited power Sir Robert Filmer talks of; if he should die as soon as his heir were born, must not the child, notwithstanding he were never so free, never so much sovereign, be in subjection to his mother and nurse, to tutors and governors, till age and education brought him reason and ability to govern himself and others? The necessities of his life, the health of his body, and the information of his mind, would require him to be directed by the will of others, and not his own; and yet will any one think, that this restraint and subjection were inconsistent with, or spoiled him of that liberty or sovereignty he had a right to, or gave away his empire to those who had the government of his nonage? This government over him only prepared him the better and sooner for it. If any body should ask me, when my son is of age to be free? I shall answer, just when his monarch is of age to govern. But at what time, says the judicious Hooker, Eccl. Pol. l. i. sect. 6. a man may be said to have attained so far forth the use of reason, as sufficeth to make him capable of those laws whereby he is then bound to guide his actions: this is a great deal more easy for sense to discern, than for any one by skill and learning to determine.

Bibliography:

“Portrait of Stylish Young Man Wearing Business Suit, Standing..” 123RF, www.123rf.com/photo_108940315_portrait-of-stylish-young-man-wearing-business-suit-standing-in-modern-city-setting.html.

Section 61 states that it should be obvious when a man or woman gets to the stage where they are free. It also states that if the father of a child is to pass away, then the sole care of them is then placed into the mothers hands. The picture above represents these ideas because it shows a young man who seems sophisticated and is obviously free from his parents.

Sect. 62. Common-wealths themselves take notice of, and allow, that there is a time when men are to begin to act like free men, and therefore till that time require not oaths of fealty, or allegiance, or other public owning of, or submission to the government of their countries.

[Gale Primary Sources]

Sec62 Election Doc

Bibliography:

Clerk, John. A practical treatise on the law of elections of the United Kingdom and the Corrupt Practices Prevention Act, 1854 : with an appendix of statutes. H. Sweet, 1855. The Making of Modern Law: Legal Treatises, 1800-1926, https://link-gale-com.libproxy.temple.edu/apps/doc/F0106630325/GDCS?u=temple_main&sid=GDCS&xid=e02455f5. Accessed 24 Apr. 2020.

In section 62, Locke says that not only does a father and mother recognize their child as free when the time is right, but the government does so as well. To relate to this, I included a cover of a document about elections, which is something that a free person would earn the right to participate in after being recognized by the government as “free.”

Sect. 63. The freedom then of man, and liberty of acting according to his own will, is grounded on his having reason, which is able to instruct him in that law he is to govern himself by, and make him know how far he is left to the freedom of his own will. To turn him loose to an unrestrained liberty, before he has reason to guide him, is not the allowing him the privilege of his nature to be free; but to thrust him out amongst brutes, and abandon him to a state as wretched, and as much beneath that of a man, as their’s. This is that which puts the authority into the parents hands to govern the minority of their children. God hath made it their business to employ this care on their offspring, and hath placed in them suitable inclinations of tenderness and concern to temper this power, to apply it, as his wisdom designed it, to the children’s good, as long as they should need to be under it.

Bibliography:

Kyriazis, Stefan. “Is Your Child in Crisis? The Top Five Signs Parents Should Watch out For.” Express.co.uk, Express.co.uk, 7 Jan. 2015, www.express.co.uk/entertainment/books/550640/children-mental-health-problems.

In section 63, Locke reiterates the statement that a man is liberated from his parents when he gains reason. He supports this statement by saying that an child unprepared to face the world, one without reason, is set up for failure in this world, and will not truly have free will. The image provided is a representation of a child unprepared to face the world.

Sect. 64. But what reason can hence advance this care of the parents due to their off-spring into an absolute arbitrary dominion of the father, whose power reaches no farther, than by such a discipline, as he finds most effectual, to give such strength and health to their bodies, such vigour and rectitude to their minds, as may best fit his children to be most useful to themselves and others; and, if it be necessary to his condition, to make them work, when they are able, for their own subsistence. But in this power the mother too has her share with the father.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

United States: c. 1969.A young woman is surprised to be nose to nose with a young man.. Photograph. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/183_366798/1/183_366798/cite. Accessed 26 Apr 2020.

In this section Locke writes that the main power of a father over a child is discipline, and that the mother shares this power equally with the father. I selected the image above because it reminded me a lot of the Yin and the Yang, which represents  a culture of balance. 

Sect. 65. Nay, this power so little belongs to the father by any peculiar right of nature, but only as he is guardian of his children, that when he quits his care of them, he loses his power over them, which goes along with their nourishment and education, to which it is inseparably annexed; and it belongs as much to the foster-father of an exposed child, as to the natural father of another. So little power does the bare act of begetting give a man over his issue; if all his care ends there, and this be all the title he hath to the name and authority of a father. And what will become of this paternal power in that part of the world, where one woman hath more than one husband at a time? or in those parts of America, where, when the husband and wife part, which happens frequently, the children are all left to the mother, follow her, and are wholly under her care and provision? If the father die whilst the children are young, do they not naturally every where owe the same obedience to their mother, during their minority, as to their father were he alive? and will any one say, that the mother hath a legislative power over her children? that she can make standing rules, which shall be of perpetual obligation, by which they ought to regulate all the concerns of their property, and bound their liberty all the course of their lives? or can she inforce the observation of them with capital punishments? for this is the proper power of the magistrate, of which the father hath not so much as the shadow. His command over his children is but temporary, and reaches not their life or property: it is but a help to the weakness and imperfection of their nonage, a discipline necessary to their education: and though a father may dispose of his own possessions as he pleases, when his children are out of danger of perishing for want, yet his power extends not to the lives or goods, which either their own industry, or another’s bounty has made their’s; nor to their liberty neither, when they are once arrived to the infranchisement of the years of discretion. The father’s empire then ceases, and he can from thence forwards no more dispose of the liberty of his son, than that of any other man: and it must be far from an absolute or perpetual jurisdiction, from which a man may withdraw himself, having license from divine authority to leave father and mother, and cleave to his wife.

Bibliography:

Greve, Joan. “Ensuring a Smooth Transfer of Power: How Presidential Transition Works.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 26 Apr. 2017, www.pbs.org/weta/washingtonweek/blog-post/ensuring-smooth-transfer-power-how-presidential-transition-works.

Section 65 states that when a father forfeits care of his children, he forfeits power over them as well. If this is before the age of the child forming reason, than it is to the mother who gains sole proprietorship of the children. He also states that when the child does eventually gain freedom, than the father has no more control over them. The picture of Obama and Trump depicts a transfer of power, which is essentially what happens when a young child gains freedom from their parents, as it is then their turn to guide their child to adulthood.

Sect. 66. But though there be a time when a child comes to be as free from subjection to the will and command of his father, as the father himself is free from subjection to the will of any body else, and they are each under no other restraint, but that which is common to them both, whether it be the law of nature, or municipal law of their country; yet this freedom exempts not a son from that honour which he ought, by the law of God and nature, to pay his parents. God having made the parents instruments in his great design of continuing the race of mankind, and the occasions of life to their children; as he hath laid on them an obligation to nourish, preserve, and bring up their offspring; so he has laid on the children a perpetual obligation of honouring their parents, which containing in it an inward esteem and reverence to be shewn by all outward expressions, ties up the child from any thing that may ever injure or affront, disturb or endanger, the happiness or life of those from whom he received his; and engages him in all actions of defence, relief, assistance and comfort of those, by whose means he entered into being, and has been made capable of any enjoyments of life: from this obligation no state, no freedom can absolve children. But this is very far from giving parents a power of command over their children, or an authority to make laws and dispose as they please of their lives or liberties. It is one thing to owe honour, respect, gratitude and assistance; another to require an absolute obedience and submission. The honour due to parents, a monarch in his throne owes his mother; and yet this lessens not his authority, nor subjects him to her government.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

Geriatric care. Photograph. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 22 Oct 2018.
quest.eb.com/search/132_1574957/1/132_1574957/cite. Accessed 26 Apr 2020.

Locke states in this section that just as much as it is the responsibility of parents to take care of their young, it is the responsibility of the children to take care of their parents as they grow elderly. He clarifies however that the children do not have power over their parents like the parents once did over them, but instead it is a sign of respect and something that they owe their parents. The picture above shows exactly this, a woman taking care of her elderly mother in time of need.

Sect. 67. The subjection of a minor places in the father a temporary government, which terminates with the minority of the child: and the honour due from a child, places in the parents a perpetual right to respect, reverence, support and compliance too, more or less, as the father’s care, cost, and kindness in his education, has been more or less. This ends not with minority, but holds in all parts and conditions of a man’s life. The want of distinguishing these two powers, viz. that which the father hath in the right of tuition, during minority, and the right of honour all his life, may perhaps have caused a great part of the mistakes about this matter: for to speak properly of them, the first of these is rather the privilege of children, and duty of parents, than any prerogative of paternal power. The nourishment and education of their children is a charge so incumbent on parents for their children’s good, that nothing can absolve them from taking care of it: and though the power of commanding and chastising them go along with it, yet God hath woven into the principles of human nature such a tenderness for their off-spring, that there is little fear that parents should use their power with too much rigour; the excess is seldom on the severe side, the strong byass of nature drawing the other way. And therefore God almighty when he would express his gentle dealing with the Israelites, he tells them, that though he chastened them, he chastened them as a man chastens his son, Deut. viii. 5. i.e. with tenderness and affection, and kept them under no severer discipline than what was absolutely best for them, and had been less kindness to have slackened. This is that power to which children are commanded obedience, that the pains and care of their parents may not be increased, or ill rewarded.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

Father changing his baby’s nappy. Photograph. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/132_1335339/1/132_1335339/cite. Accessed 26 Apr 2020.

Section 67 supports the previous sections statements by stating that the parents power is only used for the best of the child, so therefore the parent should not be ill-rewarded for such care. The picture above shows a parent taking responsible care of their baby.

Sect. 68. On the other side, honour and support, all that which gratitude requires to return for the benefits received by and from them, is the indispensable duty of the child, and the proper privilege of the parents. This is intended for the parents advantage, as the other is for the child’s; though education, the parents duty, seems to have most power, because the ignorance and infirmities of childhood stand in need of restraint and correction; which is a visible exercise of rule, and a kind of dominion. And that duty which is comprehended in the word honour, requires less obedience, though the obligation be stronger on grown, than younger children: for who can think the command, Children obey your parents, requires in a man, that has children of his own, the same submission to his father, as it does in his yet young children to him; and that by this precept he were bound to obey all his father’s commands, if, out of a conceit of authority, he should have the indiscretion to treat him still as a boy?

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Family group with grandfather, father and son on a farm near Jibacoa, Cuba. J2037704

Bibliography:

Travel. Photography. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/158_2439677/1/158_2439677/cite. Accessed 27 Apr 2020.

Locke’s first point in this passage is that a child should always honour their parent, from the age where they can comprehend the meaning of honour, to the death of the parent. In his closing thoughts, he draws a comparison on having honour for a parent, and that parent having actual power over a child, as there is a difference. The picture above shows this connection as you can tell their is a difference in the way each child embraces their parent.

Sect. 69. The first part then of paternal power, or rather duty, which is education, belongs so to the father, that it terminates at a certain season; when the business of education is over, it ceases of itself, and is also alienable before: for a man may put the tuition of his son in other hands; and he that has made his son an apprentice to another, has discharged him, during that time, of a great part of his obedience both to himself and to his mother. But all the duty of honour, the other part, remains never the less entire to them; nothing can cancel that: it is so inseparable from them both, that the father’s authority cannot dispossess the mother of this right, nor can any man discharge his son from honouring her that bore him. But both these are very far from a power to make laws, and enforcing them with penalties, that may reach estate, liberty, limbs and life. The power of commanding ends with nonage; and though, after that, honour and respect, support and defence, and whatsoever gratitude can oblige a man to, for the highest benefits he is naturally capable of, be always due from a son to his parents; yet all this puts no scepter into the father’s hand, no sovereign power of commanding. He has no dominion over his son’s property, or actions; nor any right, that his will should prescribe to his son’s in all things; however it may become his son in many things, not very inconvenient to him and his family, to pay a deference to it.

Bibliography:

Wafflepwn. Greatest Freak out Ever (ORIGINAL VIDEO). Youtube, 2010, www.youtube.com/watch?v=YersIyzsOpc.

Section 69 states that even if the parents give up the duty of a child, which in modern context could mean having other family raise the child, or by sending them to a preparatory school, the child should still honor the parent even though they forfeit power over them. This means that honor can not be forgone no matter the circumstances. Locke also adds in this section that once the child is free and has their own will, then the parents no longer have ownership of their property, but until then they do. The video embedded above reflects this as it shows a child without reason or will of their own having a breakdown when having something that was bought and is owned by the parent taken away. This shows the kids immaturity and inability to be on their own without parenting.

Sect. 70. A man may owe honour and respect to an ancient, or wise man; defence to his child or friend; relief and support to the distressed; and gratitude to a benefactor, to such a degree, that all he has, all he can do, cannot sufficiently pay it: but all these give no authority, no right to any one, of making laws over him from whom they are owing. And it is plain, all this is due not only to the bare title of father; not only because, as has been said, it is owing to the mother too; but because these obligations to parents, and the degrees of what is required of children, may be varied by the different care and kindness, trouble and expence, which is often employed upon one child more than another.

Bibliography:

“Pin on Flowers and Travel, Two.” Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/pin/342273640406910912/.

Locke speaks on debt in section 70, saying that no matter how much a man owes another, he owes the most to his child. He states that no one should have power over another to enforce law to make payments as this may inadvertently harm the child. The picture above represents this by stating that no debt is more important than love for those closest to you.

Sect. 71. This shews the reason how it comes to pass, that parents in societies, where they themselves are subjects, retain a power over their children, and have as much right to their subjection, as those who are in the state of nature. Which could not possibly be, if all political power were only paternal, and that in truth they were one and the same thing: for then, all paternal power being in the prince, the subject could naturally have none of it. But these two powers, political and paternal, are so perfectly distinct and separate; are built upon so different foundations, and given to so different ends, that every subject that is a father, has as much a paternal power over his children, as the prince has over his: and every prince, that has parents, owes them as much filial duty and obedience, as the meanest of his subjects do to their’s; and can therefore contain not any part or degree of that kind of dominion, which a prince or magistrate has over his subject.

Bibliography:

“You Don’t Have To Be A Designer To Get Awesome Visuals.” StockUnlimited, www.stockunlimited.com/vector/king-and-his-son_1415291.html.

In this section Locke differentiates the powers of the government and that of a parent over their child, saying that although the two powers are so different, a king would still follow such paternal power as any normal individual. The picture above represents this.

Sect. 72. Though the obligation on the parents to bring up their children, and the obligation on children to honour their parents, contain all the power on the one hand, and submission on the other, which are proper to this relation, yet there is another power ordinarily in the father, whereby he has a tie on the obedience of his children; which tho’ it be common to him with other men, yet the occasions of shewing it, almost constantly happening to fathers in their private families, and the instances of it elsewhere being rare, and less taken notice of, it passes in the world for a part of paternal jurisdiction. And this is the power men generally have to bestow their estates on those who please them best; the possession of the father being the expectation and inheritance of the children, ordinarily in certain proportions, according to the law and custom of each country; yet it is commonly in the father’s power to bestow it with a more sparing or liberal hand, according as the behaviour of this or that child hath comported with his will and humour.

[Britannica ImageQuest]

Bibliography:

Genetics. Photograph. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016.
quest.eb.com/search/181_765921/1/181_765921/cite. Accessed 28 Apr 2020.

In this passage Locke speaks of the role of the father if the children disobey the parents, saying that it is his job to punish the children. He does however state that the father should not be too brutal, as it is from him that the children get their will and humor. I connected this to genetics and how children gain a lot of characteristics and mannerisms from their parents.

Sect. 73. This is no small tie on the obedience of children: and there being always annexed to the enjoyment of land, a submission to the government of the country, of which that land is a part; it has been commonly supposed, that a father could oblige his posterity to that government, of which he himself was a subject, and that his compact held them; whereas, it being only a necessary condition annexed to the land, and the inheritance of an estate which is under that government, reaches only those who will take it on that condition, and so is no natural tie or engagement, but a voluntary submission: for every man’s children being by nature as free as himself, or any of his ancestors ever were, may, whilst they are in that freedom, choose what society they will join themselves to, what commonwealth they will put themselves under. But if they will enjoy the inheritance of their ancestors, they must take it on the same terms their ancestors had it, and submit to all the conditions annexed to such a possession. By this power indeed fathers oblige their children to obedience to themselves, even when they are past minority, and most commonly too subject them to this or that political power: but neither of these by any peculiar right of fatherhood, but by the reward they have in their hands to inforce and recompence such a compliance; and is no more power than what a French man has over an English man, who by the hopes of an estate he will leave him, will certainly have a strong tie on his obedience: and if, when it is left him, he will enjoy it, he must certainly take it upon the conditions annexed to the possession of land in that country where it lies, whether it be France or England.

[Artstor]

Bibliography:

Lewis W. Hine (American, 1874-1940). Ellis Island. ca. 1904-1926. Artstor, library-artstor-org.libproxy.temple.edu/asset/AEASTMANIG_10313037122

In section 73, Locke states that once free with reason, a parents child is free to decide which immigrate wherever they wish. This immigration does not however, make him greater than anyone from any other nation. I included an image of immigrants on Ellis Island to connect this idea, as they were seeking a better life in America.

Sect. 74. To conclude then, tho’ the father’s power of commanding extends no farther than the minority of his children, and to a degree only fit for the discipline and government of that age; and tho’ that honour and respect, and all that which the Latins called piety, which they indispensably owe to their parents all their life-time, and in all estates, with all that support and defence is due to them, gives the father no power of governing, i.e. making laws and enacting penalties on his children; though by all this he has no dominion over the property or actions of his son: yet it is obvious to conceive how easy it was, in the first ages of the world, and in places still, where the thinness of people gives families leave to separate into unpossessed quarters, and they have room to remove or plant themselves in yet vacant habitations, for the father of the family to become the prince of it;* he had been a ruler from the beginning of the infancy of his children: and since without some government it would be hard for them to live together, it was likeliest it should, by the express or tacit consent of the children when they were grown up, be in the father, where it seemed without any change barely to continue; when indeed nothing more was required to it, than the permitting the father to exercise alone, in his family, that executive power of the law of nature, which every free man naturally hath, and by that permission resigning up to him a monarchical power, whilst they remained in it. But that this was not by any paternal right, but only by the consent of his children, is evident from hence, that no body doubts, but if a stranger, whom chance or business had brought to his family, had there killed any of his children, or committed any other fact, he might condemn and put him to death, or other-wise have punished him, as well as any of his children; which it was impossible he should do by virtue of any paternal authority over one who was not his child, but by virtue of that executive power of the law of nature, which, as a man, he had a right to: and he alone could punish him in his family, where the respect of his children had laid by the exercise of such a power, to give way to the dignity and authority they were willing should remain in him, above the rest of his family.

(*It is no improbable opinion therefore, which the archphilosopher was of, that the chief person in every houshold was always, as it were, a king: so when numbers of housholds joined themselves in civil societies together, kings were the first kind of governors amongst them, which is also, as it seemeth, the reason why the name of fathers continued still in them, who, of fathers, were made rulers; as also the ancient custom of governors to do as Melchizedec, and being kings, to exercise the office of priests, which fathers did at the first, grew perhaps by the same occasion. Howbeit, this is not the only kind of regiment that has been received in the world. The inconveniences of one kind have caused sundry others to be devised; so that in a word, all public regiment, of what kind soever, seemeth evidently to have risen from the deliberate advice, consultation and composition between men, judging it convenient and behoveful; there being no impossibility in nature considered by itself, but that man might have lived without any public regiment, Hooker’s Eccl. Pol. lib. i. sect. 10.)

[Artstor]

Bibliography:

The Code of Hammurabi. circa 1792-1750 BCE. Artstor, library-artstor-org.libproxy.temple.edu/asset/LESSING_ART_1039490426

Locke first reiterates in this section that a father has no (monarchical) power to make laws or own property over his children. He then adds, that if a guest is to harm his children, than he is legally allowed to punish that guest and/or his children. This idea reminded me of Hammurabi’s code, which is the idea of “an eye for an eye.”

Sect. 75. Thus it was easy, and almost natural for children, by a tacit, and scarce avoidable consent, to make way for the father’s authority and government. They had been accustomed in their childhood to follow his direction, and to refer their little differences to him, and when they were men, who fitter to rule them? Their little properties, and less covetousness, seldom afforded greater controversies; and when any should arise, where could they have a fitter umpire than he, by whose care they had every one been sustained and brought up, and who had a tenderness for them all? It is no wonder that they made no distinction betwixt minority and full age; nor looked after one and twenty, or any other age that might make them the free disposers of themselves and fortunes, when they could have no desire to be out of their pupilage: the government they had been under, during it, continued still to be more their protection than restraint; and they could no where find a greater security to their peace, liberties, and fortunes, than in the rule of a father.

Bibliography:

“Aggressive Behavior in Toddlers.” ZERO TO THREE, www.zerotothree.org/resources/16-aggressive-behavior-in-toddlers.

Section 75 reminds me a lot of the idea how as children many of us wish to so badly be adults, but when we finally become adults, we wish that we were still children. Locke relates this to the feeling of being safe under your fathers protection, as often the real world as an adult can be overwhelming. The image above is a representation of this paradox as it depicts a kid frustrated with his parent, which is often where kids would say that they wish they were adults.

Sect. 76. Thus the natural fathers of families, by an insensible change, became the politic monarchs of them too: and as they chanced to live long, and leave able and worthy heirs, for several successions, or otherwise; so they laid the foundations of hereditary, or elective kingdoms, under several constitutions and manners, according as chance, contrivance, or occasions happened to mould them. But if princes have their titles in their fathers right, and it be a sufficient proof of the natural right of fathers to political authority, because they commonly were those in whose hands we find, de facto, the exercise of government: I say, if this argument be good, it will as strongly prove, that all princes, nay princes only, ought to be priests, since it is as certain, that in the beginning, the father of the family was priest, as that he was ruler in his own houshold.

Bibliography:

“Family Home Evening on Fathers – Teach the Role of the Father with ‘The Father of Our Home’ Song: Fathers Day Songs, Primary Songs, Primary Singing Time.” Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/pin/163748136422246772/.

The final section concludes Locke’s chapter six, Of Paternal Power, by stating that the father is the leader of the household due to the protection he offers his family. The photo above highlights this because it states all of the things a father has to offer.