Citation: Wong-Anuchit, C., Chantamit-O-Pas, C., Schneider, J., & Mills, A. (2018). Motivational interviewing-based compliance/adherence therapy interventions to improve psychiatric symptoms of people with severe mental illness: meta-analysis. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 5(1), 1-12.
Research Type: Meta-analysis
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nonadherence is the leading cause of relapse in mental illness. No quantitative synthesis of multiple studies has been conducted to determine the effect of motivational interviewing (MI)–based compliance/adherence therapy (CAT) interventions on people with severe mental illness. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the studies that examined the effectiveness of MI-based CAT interventions to improve psychiatric symptoms. DESIGN: Quantitative meta-analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen primary studies were retrieved (N =1267 participants). MI-based CAT interventions significantly improved psychiatric symptoms with a moderate effect size (ES) of .45. Longer sessions and higher intervention doses showed significantly greater ESs than shorter sessions and lower doses. ESs were significantly lower when participants were older and when there was a longer period between the intervention and outcome measurement. CONCLUSIONS:These findings support the effectiveness of MI-based CAT interventions. Session length and dose effect should be considered when tailoring MI to clients. Link to publisher’s article.
Citation: Collado-Mateo, D., Dominguez-Munoz, F., Adsuar, J., Garcia-Gordillo, M., & Gusi, N. (2017). Effects of exergames on quality of life, pain, and disease effect in women with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98(9), 1725-1731.
Research Type: Randomized Control Trial
Abstract: To evaluate the effects of an exergame-based intervention on a population sample of women with fibromyalgia. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 8-week intervention. Fibromyalgia center. Participants (all women) (N=83) were divided into 2 groups: an exercise group (n=42; mean age ± SD, 52.52±9.73y) and a nonexercise group (n=41; mean age ± SD, 52.47±8.75y). Women in the exercise group completed an 8-week exergame-based training program, which was focused on postural control and coordination of the upper and lower limbs, aerobic conditioning, strength, and mobility. Women (groups of 3) were encouraged to exercise for 120 minutes (over 2 sessions) per week. Main outcome measures included pain and disease effect, which were assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), a specific measure for fibromyalgia. Secondary outcome measure included quality of life, which was assessed with the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions-5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) generic instrument. The results showed that 97.62% of participants in the exercise group completed the 8-week intervention. The exercise group showed a significant improvement (P<.05) in the EQ-5D-5L utility index, and in 3 of 5 dimensions. For the FIQ, significant improvements were observed in the dimensions of pain, stiffness, anxiety, and feel good. The FIQ score was also reduced. The mean between-group improvement was 8.25 (95% confidence interval, 2.85-13.65). The results and levels of compliance/adherence suggest this exergame-based training program is an effective intervention for reducing pain and increasing health-related quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.Link to publisher’s article.
Citation: Chun, M., Chang, M., & Lee, S. (2017). The effects of forest therapy on depression and anxiety in patients with chronic stroke. International Journal of Neuroscience, 127(3), 199-203.
Research Type: Randomized Control Trial
Abstract: Objective : To assess whether forest therapy is effective for treating depression and anxiety in patients with chronic stroke by using several psychological tests. We measured reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) levels and biological antioxidant potentials (BAPs) associated with psychological stress. Methods : Fifty-nine patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to either a forest group (staying at a recreational forest site) or to an urban group (staying in an urban hotel); the duration and activities performed by both groups were the same. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), d-ROMs and BAPs were evaluated both before and after the treatment programs. Results : In the forest group, BDI, HAM-D17 and STAI scores were significantly lower following treatment, and BAPs were significantly higher than baseline. In the urban group, STAI scores were significantly higher following treatment. Moreover, BDI, HAM-D17 and STAI scores of the forest group were significantly lower, and BAPs were significantly higher following treatment (ANCOVA, p <0.05). Conclusion : Forest therapy is beneficial for treating depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with chronic stroke, and may be particularly useful in patients who cannot be treated with standard pharmacological or electroconvulsive therapies. Link to publisher’s article.
Citation: Townsend, J., Hawkins, B., Bennett, J., Hoffman, J., Martin, T., Sotherden, E., & Bridges, W. (2018). Preliminary long-term health outcomes associated with recreation-based health and wellness programs for injured service members. Cogen Psychology, 5(1), 1-17.
Research Type: Other Quantitative Research Design
Abstract: Recreation-based health and wellness programs for military service members are currently a topic of significant interest in the recreation and health industries. This study examined the health outcomes associated with participation in Project Sanctuary, a week-long recreation-based health and wellness family retreat for injured military service members. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine changes in health outcomes over four time points, and considered multiple covariates. One-hundred twenty-seven service members participated. Statistically significant reductions in total scores for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) measures were found, as well as notable improvements in Depression, Anxiety, and Atress Scale (DASS) and mental health functioning immediately following the intervention. No changes were found in physical health functioning. Trends demonstrated that participants maintained the positive psychological health changes over the three and six month time points. Veteran’s Administration (VA) disability rate was the only significant covariate associated with health outcome change across timepoints. Implications for future practice and research are discussed in the article. Link to publisher’s article.
Citation: Janos, M., Zsofia, V., Gyimesi-Szikszai, A., & Szilvia, A. (2017). A two-week inpatient programme with a booster improved long-term management of severe chronic paediatric pain. Journal of Child Health Care, 21(2), 171-180.
Research Type: Other Quantitative Research Design
Abstract: In the context of limited healthcare resources and increasing demands for more cost-effective healthcare solutions, this study assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes and resource utilization of a two-week inpatient, interdisciplinary, pain treatment (IIPT) including individual and group cognitive behavioural, occupational, physical and recreational therapy, education and family intervention and a booster in the chronic paediatric pain setting. Using a longitudinal design with a two-year follow-up, two-week IIPT resulted in sustainable improvements in mean and maximum pain intensity, physical functioning and internalization and reductions in the mean number of medical visits, school absence and frequency of pain medication at year 2 following IIPT. While pain-related disability scores did not improve, problem-focused coping became more prevalent, and patient and parent-assessed satisfaction as well as pain experience continued to improve throughout the study. Our results demonstrate that a two-week IIPT with a booster confers meaningful short- and long-term improvements in clinical outcomes and resource utilization among paediatric patients with severe chronic pain. Link to publisher’s article.
Citation: Goncalves, A., Cruz, J., Marques, A., Demain, S., & Samuel, D. (2018). Evaluating physical activity in dementia: A systematic review of outcomes to inform the development of a core outcome set. Age & Ageing, 47(1), 34-41.
Research Type: Systematic Review
Abstract: Background: physical activity is recommended for people living with dementia, but evidence for the positive effects of physical activity is limited by the use of heterogeneous outcomes and measurement tools. This systematic literature review aimed to summarise previously reported outcomes and identify the measurement tools used most frequently in physical activity interventions for people with dementia. Methods: literature searches were conducted in April 2015, on Delphis and Medline. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies reporting on any type of physical activity, in any setting, across types of dementia, stages of disease progression and published from 2005 onwards were included. A content analysis approach was used to report on the frequency of reported outcomes and measurement tools. Results: the 130 included studies reported on 133 different outcome domains and 267 different measurement tools. ‘Functional abilities and independence’ (n = 69), ‘Global cognitive function’ (n = 65), ‘Balance’ (n = 43), ‘Global behavioural symptoms of dementia’ (n = 42) and ‘Health-related quality of life’ (n = 40) were the most frequently reported outcome domains. ‘Enjoyment’ was the outcome most frequently sought by patients and carers. Conclusion: the need for the development and implementation of a Core Outcome Set has been reinforced. Ahead of the completion of the Core Outcome Set, researchers and clinicians are advised to measure the impact of physical activity interventions on these frequently reported outcome domains. Link to FULL article.
Citation: Gale, C., Westbury, L., & Cooper, C. (2018). Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for the progression of frailty: The English longitudinal study of ageing. Age & Ageing, 47(3), 392-397.
Research Type: Other Quantitative Research Design
Abstract: Background: loneliness and social isolation have been associated with mortality and with functional decline in older people. We investigated whether loneliness or social isolation are associated with progression of frailty. Method: participants were 2,817 people aged ≥60 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Loneliness was assessed at Wave 2 using the Revised UCLA scale (short version). A social isolation score at Wave 2 was derived from data on living alone, frequency of contact with friends, family and children, and participation in social organisations. Frailty was assessed by the Fried phenotype of physical frailty at Waves 2 and 4, and by a frailty index at Waves 2–5. Results: high levels of loneliness were associated with an increased risk of becoming physically frail or pre-frail around 4 years later: relative risk ratios (95% CI), adjusted for age, sex, level of frailty and other potential confounding factors at baseline were 1.74 (1.29, 2.34) for pre-frailty, and 1.85 (1.14, 2.99) for frailty. High levels of loneliness were not associated with change in the frailty index—a broadly based measure of general condition—over a mean period of 6 years. In the sample as a whole, there was no association between social isolation and risk of becoming physically frail or pre-frail, but high social isolation was associated with increased risk of becoming physically frail in men. Social isolation was not associated with change in the frailty index. Conclusion: older people who experience high levels of loneliness are at increased risk of becoming physically frail. Link to FULL article.
Citation: Lai, C., Tu, Y., Wang, T., Huang, Y., & Chien, K. (2018). Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Age and Ageing, 47(3), 367-373.
Research Type: Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis
Abstract: Background: A variety of different types of exercise are promoted to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Objective: We aimed to determine the relative effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Design: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Subjects: Adults aged 60 and over. Methods: Evidence from randomised controlled trials of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration were combined. The effects of exercise interventions on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance were evaluated by conducting a network meta-analysis to compare multiple interventions and usual care. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. A meta-regression was performed to assess potential effect modifiers. Results: Data were obtained from 30 trials involving 1,405 participants (age range: 60–92 years). No significant differences were found between the effects of exercise or usual care on lean body mass. Resistance training (minimum 6 weeks duration) achieved greater muscle strength improvement than did usual care (12.8 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5–17.0 kg). Resistance training and whole-body vibration were associated with greater physical performance improvement compared with usual care (2.6 times greater [95% CI: 1.3–3.9] and 2.1 times greater [95% CI: 0.5–3.7], respectively). Conclusions: Resistance training is the most effect intervention to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Our findings also suggest that whole-body vibration is beneficial for physical performance. However, none of the three exercise interventions examined had a significant effect on lean body mass. Link to FULL article.
Citation: Schofield, P. & Abdulla, A. (2018). Pain assessment in the older population: What the literature says. Age and Ageing, 47(3), 324-327.
Research Type: Guideline
Abstract: Assessment of pain in the older adult presents a number of challenges, especially related to communication. This commentary summarises the revised evidence-based Guidelines on the Assessment of Pain in Older Adults which have been developed by the British Pain Society and British Geriatrics Society. The guideline summarises the pain assessment tools that have been developed and validated for use in the older population. Recommendations are made for use of specific tools in older people and in those with dementia. The need for education and training of health care professionals is emphasised. Gaps in the evidence are identified as subjects for future research. It is hoped that the guideline will improve recognition of pain in older people, and help to drive the future research agenda. Link to FULL article.
Citation: Norlander, A., Iwarsson, S., Jonsson, A., Lindgren, A., & Lexell, E. (2018). Living and ageing with stroke: An exploration of conditions influencing participation in social and leisure activities over 15 years. DOI: 10.1080/02699052.2018.1463561
Research Type: Qualitative Research Design
Abstract: Objective: To explore conditions influencing long-term participation in social and leisure activities among people who have had a stroke. Methods: This study had a qualitative design, using a grounded theory methodology. Data collection was based on in-depth interviews performed 15 years after a first-ever stroke with 10 persons recruited from a population-based stroke cohort in Sweden. The study also included four family members. Findings: Over time, the stroke meant a changed but gradually normalised life situation. Participation in social and leisure activities was influenced by several transacting personal and contextual conditions changing with time and ageing. Central conditions that emerged from the analysis included personal characteristics, having social and supportive networks, being dependent on others, having access to valued activities and contexts, being motivated to participate, and perceiving sufficient capacity to participate. Conclusions: Long-term participation after stroke is possible despite impairments, but is influenced by a range of personal and environmental conditions. Stroke rehabilitation should be based on an awareness of this influence and address conditions that change with time and ageing during different phases after stroke. Link to full article.