Essay About Final Project

Donean Guerrero-

Throughout digital world 2020 we learned many different aspects of digital technology that made us maintain a very good perspective on what is inside different types of technology. We also learned about how different compartments work and how they affect the technology. For our project we decided to dissect an iPhone 7 Plus and talk about the different parts that is inside of it. Some of the parts inside it we didn’t even know about so we really learned a lot about parts that we didn’t even know about. The reason we are writing about this is because we really wanted to see what makes up a product that we are customers for, so we wanted to see what we are paying for.

Donean Guerrero-

The main part inside the iPhone 7 Plus is the battery. It is a 2900 mAh ion battery which is the most energetic rechargeable battery available in the market right now. The lithium ion battery only loses about 5% of its charge per month as opposed to the NiMH battery that loses 20% of its charge per month. The new 2900 mAh ion battery is also 5% larger than the 2750 mAh battery used in the iPhone 6 Plus. The fact that battery is bigger and stronger, its battery life goes up to 21 hour talk time which 4 more hours than previous iPhones.

 

Donean Guerrero-

A new component that Apple added to its iPhones after the iPhone 6 series was the Barometric Vent. This replaced the headphone jack that were all in the other iPhones prior to the 7. It is on the bottom left corner of your phone, the holes that look like a speaker. Since they added waterproofing, they needed to add a barometer which allows the iPhone 7 Plus to altitude and pressure. It can even measure minor changes like going up a flight of stairs or an elevator.

Donean Guerrero-

Another compartment that is inside the iPhone 7 Plus is the Taptic Engine. The taptic engine provides tactile sensation in the form of vibrations to users. It senses the amount of fingerprint pressure applied to the display. Users of Apple devices feel sensations that vary based on the type of feedback provided, which allows the device to quickly convey information without the user needing to look at a screen or display. One example is that the Taptic Engine may send one vibrating alert when you get an email and another type when you get a text message.

Donean Guerrero-

Another compartment that is inside the iPhone 7 Plus is the 339S00199 Wifi. It Cost $9.51. This the component that allows you to connect to bluetooth. The way it is wired is that it connects to the cell atena which will allow it to get connection wherever you are. Your bluetooth device will send a signal to your phone that allows your phone to pick it up and connect to it.

Donean Guerrero-

Lastly another main compartment is the XMM7360 Modem. This modem is for LTE advanced smartphones. Combines power management units and leading-edge capabilities in a compact, power-efficient design to deliver performance benefits.

The modem is what connects the phone to the internet instead of using a telephone or cable television lines.

 

Michael Benjamin-

The first slide that I did on our presentation was about the background information on the iPhone 7 Plus. My research process was really simple. I went onto bloomberg.com and saw that they had history of the new iPhone 7 Plus. This specific model was announced to the public on September 7th, 2016. The cost of making the phone is around $270 and it retails for $749. I thought that it was very cool that Apple introduced the dual camera lens to the new phone.

-Michael Benjamin

The next slide that I did was the slide explaining the front and the rear camera. It was very interesting to learn about the new camera features that Apple introduced into the new iPhone 7 Plus. As I mentioned before, Apple introduced the new dual lens camera system. This makes it possible for the camera to achieve 2x optical zoom. This new camera makes it possible to achieve the “depth of field effect”. This is when the lens focuses onto the subject and makes the background blurry. The new camera also offers image stabilization and also shoots in 4k. The lens is protected by a Sapphire Crystal Lens cover. I put in a commercial that Apple made about the new camera that I found was very interesting. It showed how crisp and clear the new camera shoots.

-Michael Benjamin

The next component of the iPhone 7 Plus that I wrote about in the presentation was the cell antenna. This is a very important component of the iPhone because this is what allows the phone to send and receive cellular waves, WiFi and bluetooth signals. It is located on the top of the phone. Following that slide, I did the slide on the loudspeaker. I learned that Apple introduced the stereo sound speaker by adding a speaker on the bottom on the phone and on the earpiece. So, this means that audio comes out on both speakers. These speakers have better performance than previous models.

-Michael Benjamin

The slide that I did after was about the Retina display and the LED screen that Apple incorporated into the iPhone 7 Plus. The screen is 5.5 inch in length and uses IPS technology. This technology gives a very crisp and clear display by providing better color accuracy. This is more expensive to produce but, it is worth the money. This phone has a 1920-by-1080-pixel resolution at a 401 pixel density. I also played a video that explained the difference of Retina and a regular display. I found the video very interesting and helpful. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcnKi7GxZ2k

Michael Benjamin-

The last slide that I did was about the flash memory. The standard iPhone 7 Plus comes with  32GB memory but other models feature higher capacity. Flash memory consists of two transistors. One of the is called the floating transistor and the other is the control gate.

 

Information Literacy:

https://www.bloomberg.com/features/apple-iphone-guts/

https://www.apple.com/iphone-7/specs/

https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/taptic-engine.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZL4rwTB8Yg

https://www.idownloadblog.com/2016/09/16/apple-iphone-7-barometric-vent/

Raspberry Pi!

##Part (1): import the GPIO library( DO NOT change the code in this part.)

import RPi .GPIO as GPIO

import time

 

 

###Part (2): Assign GPIO ports to each binary number

###Use GPIO ports 12,16,20,21. Reference the Lab Instructions

 

num1=[12]                   #(GPIO12 use for bit#1 (2^0=1))

num2=[16]                   #(GPIO16 use for bit#2 (2^1=2))

num3=[12,16]         #(Decimal number 3 is 2+1, so we need GPIO12,16)

num4=[20]              #(GPIO20 use for bit#3 (2^2=4))

num5=[20,12]         #(Decimal number 5 is 4+1, so we need GPIO20, 12)

num6=[20,16]

num7=[20,12,16]                    #(Decimal number 7 is 4+2+1,so we need combine GPIO20, 16, 12)

 

num8=[21]                #(Add your code for num8-num14)

num9=[21,12]

num10=[21,16]

num11=[21,16,12]

num12=[21,20]

num13=[12,20,12]

num14=[15,21]

num15=[21,20,16,12]             #(Decimal number 15 is 8+4+2+1, so we use GPIO

 

### Part (3): set GPIO 12,16,20,21 as outputs. (DO NOT change the code in this part.)

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)

GPIO.setup(12,GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(16,GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(20,GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(21,GPIO.OUT)

 

 

###Part (4): A “while loop” code that displays LED lights from decimal 1 to 15 and repeats by looping.

 

while True:                                                   #Run while “true”

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.HIGH)      #num1 sets electrical signals ON for decimal 1.

time.sleep(2)                       #The electrical signals will stay on for 2 seconds.

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.LOW)       #After 2 seconds, num1 signals are OFF.

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num2,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num2,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num6,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num6,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num7,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num7,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num8,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num8,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num10,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num10,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num11,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num11,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num12,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num12,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num13,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num13,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num14,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num14,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num15,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num15,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

###Part (5): The code below is commented within a pair of ”’.

#The code uses LEDs to blink for an example TUID.

 

”’

#example: #TUID:915334

 

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

”’

###Part (6): Add your code below to display LEDs for your own TUID

 

915543453

 

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

E-Waste in Today’s World and Temple’s Recycling Center

China is a very popular place for electronic waste to be sent to. Electronic waste is currently the fastest waste stream in the world and it has many harmful effects. Many of the waste products contain poisonous gasses and chemicals. For example, ink cartridges contain chemicals that aren’t good for the human body. Also, led screens contain mercury which is very poisonous and can lead to harmful side effects. Most of the e-waste in the United States travels on average of 2,500 miles. Most of them end up in China. Hong Kong is the transit point of illegal smuggling and is where most of the e-waste is brought to. A lot of the workers that are dealing with the e-waste have very little knowledge of the harm that it can do to your body. The labour force does not wear any protection and isn’t regulated. That makes the e-waste junkyards in Hong Kong illegal. The U.S is the only developed nation that has not ratified an international treaty to stop first world countries from dumping e-waste on developing nations. Other nations set e-waste mandates and require electronics manufacturers to pay for domestic e-waste processing. In half of the states in the U.S, you can dump electronics into landfills. This is something that our country should work on fixing and regulating. Dell is an electronics company that has stepped forward and is trying to help solve the problem. Dell banned non-working electronics to be transported to non-developed countries. They partnered with Goodwill refurbish and to give out the electronics. 427 million pounds of e-waste has been saved from being transported into non-developed countries.

I learned a lot from the tour of Temple’s e-waste recycling center. Temple has a very easy and effective process of dealing with unwanted electronics. If a department or person at the school wants to throw their electronic device out, the recycling center gets it and stores it. Often times, they refurbish the product and sell it to students. If nobody is willing to buy the product, the recycling center donates it to various places in the community. What surprised me the most was how much e-waste there actually is. I never really thought about how e-waste affects the world and how much of it there actually is. Since technology is developing every year, people want to always have the newest computer or smartphone. So, therefore, there is a lot of e-waste. I believe that Temple’s e-waste program is very adequate. It’s done in the right way and is giving back to the community. It’s also a great place for student’s to get active in and work. I would say the recycling center isn’t well known. I’ve been at Temple for two years and going on this field trip was my first time hearing of it. But know that I do know, it is very helpful. I would suggest the recycling center to promote itself more. It would be nice to have event’s or giveaways in the future.

 

The Harm of E-waste

Below is a video that I found very interesting. It describes the harmful effects of e-waste and why we have to act now. It shows some of the poisonous gasses that they give out and the terrible labor conditions that people work in.

Network

Paper View
Plain Text View

All forms of communication systems share very similar and basic properties. The most fundamental part of a network is called the bandwidth. This is how fast data can be transmitted throughout the network. Three other important properties are; Latency which is how long it takes for information to go through a system, jitter which is the variability of delay and finally range is how big the network is.

The telephone network began by carrying voice traffic worldwide but then ended up evolving to carry different types of big data. For wired telephones at home, analog signals are carried, not data. The modem is a very important piece to the telephone as it does modulation and demodulation. Modulation is the process of imposing an information carrying pattern on a system. Demodulation is the process of putting the information into its original form. It is really important to have a modem.

In the early 1970’s, Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs invented the Ethernet which is a networking technology. The Ethernet carries signals between computers that are all connected together. Each computer has a unique identification number connected to the ethernet to know which computer is processing information. Each ethernet has a specific address which is a 48-bit identification number. They are always given in hexadecimal form. Information is transferred from an ethernet in “packets”. A packet consists of the source address, destination address, data length, data and error check.

Bandwidth is the maximum rate of data that passes throughout a specific path. It’s really hard to figure out the bandwidth of a cell phone because it operates in very complex and harsh environments. Compression is a way of making better use of unused and available memory. The idea of compression is to avoid storing redundant information that can easily be repeated in the future. It does this by encoding the information into fewer bits. This is done by reducing or eliminating the bits that do not convey their full potential information content.

Error reduction is the process of adding controlled redundancies that eventually detect and sometimes fix errors. An example of this is a credit card. It has a checksum algorithm that detects errors in credit card numbers. Error detection is used a lot in computing and is very important.

 

Video:

Bandwith 101 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Controlling the CPU to Do Our Bidding

Getting ideas and projects from our head and integrating it into the CPU requires numerous amounts of components. Starting off with the RAM, one number or one instruction is held in each location of the RAM. The RAM is used to fetch the instructions and pass them onto further tasks. One fetch in a RAM takes about 25-50 nanoseconds. The CPU only understands instructions in 1’s and 0’s. The CPU operates using a very simple cycle. First, it fetches the instructions from the RAM, then it decodes them and finally executes them. The bus is how the information is how the cycle goes through the RAM and CPU. The ALU is step 3 of the Machine Cycle and it executes different commands. The machine code is all the 1’s and 0’s that come from the assembly language and then processed into the CPU. The assembly language is a simple set of instructions such as GET, PRINT, STORE, etc… The assembly language instructions have to be translated into the Machine Code in the RAM in order for the CPU to understand it. The high-level programming languages are coding programs such as Java, Python, PHP which require more complex coding abilities. Algorithms are used in programs and instructions in order for the computer to compute the numbers.

Assembly Language and machine code video (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

This is a short video describing the relevance that the assembly language and machine code have on programming and running a computer.

Controlling 1s and 0s

1.

Transistors and circuits basically run on 1’s and 0’s. For example, when the transistor is on 0, it’s off and not running. But if it’s on 1, the transistor is up and running. It acts the same way as a switch. One way turns it off, the other turns it on. Boolean algebra is a type of algebra in which the values are TRUE and FALSE which correspond with 1 and 0 respectively. A truth table shows how many variations of 1’s and 0’s or True/False can be conducted in its component. A logic gate is a component of multiple digital circuits.

2. Why do Computers Use 1’s and 0’s (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

This video talks about how binary number’s are used in transistors.

Bits, Bytes, and the Representation of Information

1.

2.1 Analog versus Digital:

  • The word analog comes from the word “analogous”.
  • Analog means that when there is something changing, another thing follows and changes as well.
  • Digital deals with values that are discrete. This means that there is only a certain amount of possibilities and values.
  • Our world is considered analog.
  • Most modern technology is digital.
  • Computers work better with digital values.
  • One advantage that digital has over analog is that it can be extended.

2.2 Analog-Digital Conversion:

  • One example of analog to digital conversion is sound.
  • For example, digital music can be converted as many times as you want to different sources and will always sound the same.
  • Anything that can be converted into numeric values is a digital representation.

2.3 Bits, Bytes, and Binary:

  • Digital systems only use binary values.
  • Digital systems use bits.
  • An example of a bit is: ON/OFF or TRUE/FALSE
  • 8 bits is the basic unit of processing and memory organization.

 

2.

Digital is mostly preferred over analog for numerous reasons. One reason is that most of our modern technology is digital. Computers can easily work with digital values because it can store, transfer, and collect data in different ways. Also, digital values can be extended, unlike analog data. For example, a stopwatch on a digital watch can show a value to the hundredth of a second which would be very difficult for an analog watch.

 

3.

Digital vs Analog Video (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

This video gives a very good and quick explanation of digital vs analog data. It explains the differences and how each work.

What’s Inside a Computer?

  • Today’s computers are very similar to the ones in the ’50s.
  • A computer consists of a processor (the CPU), some primary memory (RAM), some secondary storage (a disk) and a variety of other components, all connected by a set of wires called a bus that transmits information between them.
  • A CPU is the central processing unit.
  • The RAM stands for random access memory. It stores memory that is in active use by the computer.
  • A computer has a fixed amount of RAM.
  • The Moore’s Law states that the number of transmitters that can be manufactured will double every 18-24 months.

2.

The CPU is a very important part of the computer. It’s known as the “brain” of a computer. It performs actions and operations very fast, billions per second to be exact. The CPU uses an internal clock to help perform these actions. The internal clock can be compared to a heartbeat in a human. Every beat or tick of the internal clock is called a hertz(Hz).

3.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AkFi90lZmXA

This video basically summarizes the chapter. It talks about how memory and information are processed and saved throughout your computer. It also talks about the main parts of a computer especially the CPU.