Surprises and the Surprised

A. Better Safe than Sorry

  1. “Don’t Do Something; Stand There”
  2. “Status Quo Plus”

B. Gorbachev’s “New Thinking”

  1. Elections
  2. The Nationalities Question
  3. Poland (August 1989)
  4. Afghanistan and the Sinatra Doctrine
  5. Velvet Revolution (November 1989)
  6. Berlin Wall (November 1989)

C. Bush’s Old Thinking

  1. Malta Summit (December 1989)
  2. German Reunification (1990)

D. Collapse of the Soviet Union

  1. Coup
  2. Boris Yeltsin
  3. Russian Federation
  4. Christmas 1991: Commonwealth of Independent States

E. Days of Glory

  1. Nicaragua
  2. El Salvador
  3. Panama
  4. Gulf War

F. Snatching Defeat from the Jaws of Victory



Michael Dukakis
James Baker III
Baltic Republics
Central Asia
Vaclav Havel
Nicolae Ceaucescu
Helmut Kohl
Manuel Noriega
Violeta Chamorro
Saddam Hussein
April Glaspie
Operation Desert Shield
Operation Desert Storm