Final Essay!!

 Donean Guerrero & Michael Benjamin

Professor Battalora

Digital World 2020 / Group 16

25 April 2019

 

Donean Guerrero-

Throughout digital world 2020 we learned many different aspects of digital technology that made us maintain a very good perspective on what is inside different types of technology. We also learned about how different compartments work and how they affect the technology. For our project we decided to dissect an iPhone 7 Plus and talk about the different parts that is inside of it. Some of the parts inside it we didn’t even know about so we really learned a lot about parts that we didn’t even know about. The reason we are writing about this is because we really wanted to see what makes up a product that we are customers for, so we wanted to see what we are paying for.

Donean Guerrero-

The main part inside the iPhone 7 Plus is the battery. It is a 2900 mAh ion battery which is the most energetic rechargeable battery available in the market right now. The lithium ion battery only loses about 5% of its charge per month as opposed to the NiMH battery that loses 20% of its charge per month. The new 2900 mAh ion battery is also 5% larger than the 2750 mAh battery used in the iPhone 6 Plus. The fact that battery is bigger and stronger, its battery life goes up to 21 hour talk time which 4 more hours than previous iPhones.

 

Donean Guerrero-

A new component that Apple added to its iPhones after the iPhone 6 series was the Barometric Vent. This replaced the headphone jack that were all in the other iPhones prior to the 7. It is on the bottom left corner of your phone, the holes that look like a speaker. Since they added waterproofing, they needed to add a barometer which allows the iPhone 7 Plus to altitude and pressure. It can even measure minor changes like going up a flight of stairs or an elevator.

Donean Guerrero-

Another compartment that is inside the iPhone 7 Plus is the Taptic Engine. The taptic engine provides tactile sensation in the form of vibrations to users. It senses the amount of fingerprint pressure applied to the display. Users of Apple devices feel sensations that vary based on the type of feedback provided, which allows the device to quickly convey information without the user needing to look at a screen or display. One example is that the Taptic Engine may send one vibrating alert when you get an email and another type when you get a text message.

Donean Guerrero-

Another compartment that is inside the iPhone 7 Plus is the 339S00199 Wifi. It Cost $9.51. This the component that allows you to connect to bluetooth. The way it is wired is that it connects to the cell atena which will allow it to get connection wherever you are. Your bluetooth device will send a signal to your phone that allows your phone to pick it up and connect to it.

Donean Guerrero-

Lastly another main compartment is the XMM7360 Modem. This modem is for LTE advanced smartphones. Combines power management units and leading-edge capabilities in a compact, power-efficient design to deliver performance benefits.

The modem is what connects the phone to the internet instead of using a telephone or cable television lines.

 

Michael Benjamin-

The first slide that I did on our presentation was about the background information on the iPhone 7 Plus. My research process was really simple. I went onto bloomberg.com and saw that they had history of the new iPhone 7 Plus. This specific model was announced to the public on September 7th, 2016. The cost of making the phone is around $270 and it retails for $749. I thought that it was very cool that Apple introduced the dual camera lens to the new phone.

-Michael Benjamin

The next slide that I did was the slide explaining the front and the rear camera. It was very interesting to learn about the new camera features that Apple introduced into the new iPhone 7 Plus. As I mentioned before, Apple introduced the new dual lens camera system. This makes it possible for the camera to achieve 2x optical zoom. This new camera makes it possible to achieve the “depth of field effect”. This is when the lens focuses onto the subject and makes the background blurry. The new camera also offers image stabilization and also shoots in 4k. The lens is protected by a Sapphire Crystal Lens cover. I put in a commercial that Apple made about the new camera that I found was very interesting. It showed how crisp and clear the new camera shoots.

-Michael Benjamin

The next component of the iPhone 7 Plus that I wrote about in the presentation was the cell antenna. This is a very important component of the iPhone because this is what allows the phone to send and receive cellular waves, WiFi and bluetooth signals. It is located on the top of the phone. Following that slide, I did the slide on the loudspeaker. I learned that Apple introduced the stereo sound speaker by adding a speaker on the bottom on the phone and on the earpiece. So, this means that audio comes out on both speakers. These speakers have better performance than previous models.

-Michael Benjamin

The slide that I did after was about the Retina display and the LED screen that Apple incorporated into the iPhone 7 Plus. The screen is 5.5 inch in length and uses IPS technology. This technology gives a very crisp and clear display by providing better color accuracy. This is more expensive to produce but, it is worth the money. This phone has a 1920-by-1080-pixel resolution at a 401 pixel density. I also played a video that explained the difference of Retina and a regular display. I found the video very interesting and helpful. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcnKi7GxZ2k

Michael Benjamin-

The last slide that I did was about the flash memory. The standard iPhone 7 Plus comes with  32GB memory but other models feature higher capacity. Flash memory consists of two transistors. One of the is called the floating transistor and the other is the control gate.

 

Information Literacy:

https://www.bloomberg.com/features/apple-iphone-guts/

https://www.apple.com/iphone-7/specs/

https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/taptic-engine.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZL4rwTB8Yg

https://www.idownloadblog.com/2016/09/16/apple-iphone-7-barometric-vent/

Python Turtle Race!

#!/bin/python3

from turtle import *
from random import randint

speed(0)
penup()
goto(-140, 140)

for step in range(15):
write(step, align=’center’)
right(90)
for num in range(8):
penup()
forward(10)
pendown()
forward(10)
penup()
backward(160)
left(90)
forward(20)

ada = Turtle()
ada.color(‘red’)
ada.shape(‘turtle’)

Raspberry Pi Codes!

##Part (1): import the GPIO library( DO NOT change the code in this part.)

import RPi .GPIO as GPIO

import time

 

 

###Part (2): Assign GPIO ports to each binary number

###Use GPIO ports 12,16,20,21. Reference the Lab Instructions

 

num1=[12]                   #(GPIO12 use for bit#1 (2^0=1))

num2=[16]                   #(GPIO16 use for bit#2 (2^1=2))

num3=[12,16]         #(Decimal number 3 is 2+1, so we need GPIO12,16)

num4=[20]              #(GPIO20 use for bit#3 (2^2=4))

num5=[20,12]         #(Decimal number 5 is 4+1, so we need GPIO20, 12)

num6=[20,16]

num7=[20,12,16]                    #(Decimal number 7 is 4+2+1,so we need combine GPIO20, 16, 12)

 

num8=[21]                #(Add your code for num8-num14)

num9=[21,12]

num10=[21,16]

num11=[21,16,12]

num12=[21,20]

num13=[12,20,12]

num14=[15,21]

num15=[21,20,16,12]             #(Decimal number 15 is 8+4+2+1, so we use GPIO

 

### Part (3): set GPIO 12,16,20,21 as outputs. (DO NOT change the code in this part.)

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)

GPIO.setup(12,GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(16,GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(20,GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(21,GPIO.OUT)

 

 

###Part (4): A “while loop” code that displays LED lights from decimal 1 to 15 and repeats by looping.

 

while True:                                                   #Run while “true”

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.HIGH)      #num1 sets electrical signals ON for decimal 1.

time.sleep(2)                       #The electrical signals will stay on for 2 seconds.

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.LOW)       #After 2 seconds, num1 signals are OFF.

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num2,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num2,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num6,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num6,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num7,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num7,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num8,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num8,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num10,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num10,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num11,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num11,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num12,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num12,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num13,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num13,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num14,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num14,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num15,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num15,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

###Part (5): The code below is commented within a pair of ”’.

#The code uses LEDs to blink for an example TUID.

 

”’

#example: #TUID:915334

 

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

”’

###Part (6): Add your code below to display LEDs for your own TUID

 

915543453

 

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num9,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num1,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

 

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num4,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num5,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

 

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(2)

GPIO.output(num3,GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(2)

A Visit to the Temple Recycling Center and a PBS News Segment

After watching the PBS News Hour Segment and visiting Temple’s Recycling Center, I have learned more than what I ever knew about E-Waste. In the PBS Segment, they say Electronic waste is the fastest waste stream in the world. Something that surprised me while watch the news segment was how many of these electronic devices have poisonous gasses and some tubes have mercury in them. They also took a trip to Hong Kong where there were the most E-Waste junkyards, that are illegal, and they checked how workers were working in this dangerous condition. Many didn’t have proper equipment such as masks and gloves. After visiting the Temple Recycling center, I believed what they are doing is the right thig and the right way. They have all these computers and printers and monitors in the back and saftly stored. I believe the recycling is not well known in this specific community of Philadelphia but more people will begin to realize about it more with more people talking about. Some suggestion I would give to people is that if you have old technology, to go to their nearest E-Waste Recycling Center for their own good and keeping the earth clean. Something I would do to help this recycling center get better publicity is reach out to the young people, so maybe create a social media about it, like an Instagram or Twitter and just always post new things like facts about E-Waste. What’s unique about the Temple Recycling Center is that while they have many old parts and computers and monitors, they often try to sell it to people in the community and if people don’t buy it they usually donate it to special places so people who really can’t afford these types of technology gain more digital knowledge.

PBS News Hour Segment

Here is another Interesting Video about E-Waste

E-Waste Hell

 

Internet!!

An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned. Packet switching is the grouping of data that is transmitted over a digital network into packets while circuit switching is when telecommunication is implemented into two networks. Internet Protocol is rules governing the format of data sent over the internet or another network. TCP is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation which applications can exchange data. DHCP is a network management protocol that assigns an IP address to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.

Video on How DHCP works step by step!

Networks!

There are so many different networks that this chapter talks about, some that i didn’t even know about. In Chapter 8 it talks about Telephone and Modems network, Cable and DSL network, Local Area and Ethernet network, wireless, ad cell phone network. Telephones and Modems were one of the first networks that people used. Telephone lines would carry voice traffic and in order for the telephone to work it needed a modem. A modem is a hardware device that converts data between transmission media so that it can be transmitted from computer to computer.

The next network it talks about is Cable and DSL. Cable is a network connection that connects everyone to over 100 channels with a speed of 10 or 20 Mbps. The DSL which is know as Digital Subscriber Loop sends data on the telephone wire with a technique that doesnt interfere with the voice signal. 

One of the next network is one that i often use a lot to play video games which is the Ethernet Cable. Ethernet cable is a cable of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks, metropolitan area networks and wide area networks. Connecting to this gives you internet a lot faster than WIFI because you are physically getting all the connection wired instead of wireless where it has to be in good service areas. I use Ethernet cable when i am playing on PS4 so i don’t lag as much as when im connected to Wifi. 

The next network is Wireless network. The only reason why i would say wireless network is better than ethernet is because its wireless. But also wireless networks use electromagnetic radiation to carry out signals. “Wireless systems operate under strict rules about what range of frequencies they can use—their spectrum and how much power they can use for transmission.” This means between FM and AM, you have to realize how much MHz can power through it.

Cell Phones is the most common wireless communication used today. Cell phones share a narrow radio frequency spectrum that has limited capacity for carrying information. Phones must operate with low radio power because they use batteries, and by law there transmission power is limited to avoid interference with others. The reason they are called “cell” phones, is because each phone can hold more cells of connection than another. Cell sizes come from a few hundred meters to a few tens of kilometers.

Bandwidth has to do with the flow of connections in the network. Like LTE and 4G or your modem or cable and DSL. Bandwidth make everything a lot easier. Compression is great make better of use of data because it compresses it.

Video on Basic Network

 

CPU and How it Relates to everything

1. RAM fetches the code 1 by 1. RAM only holds instruction and data

2. CPU cycles through the RAM. ALU is all the algorithm that sends to the CPU to process. The bus is how everything travels through the information.

3. Machine code are all the 1s and 0s and it processes it and sends it to the CPU. It is what assembles the data for the CPU to understand.

4. Assembly Language sends all its information to the Machine Code and the machine code sends it all to the CPU.

5. High Level Programming Languages are things like Java, Python, PHP

6. Algorithms is everything above just put together to form the CPU.

7. Different algorithms to sort are Merg Sort, The Ultimate Sort like google,

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiVKIdGheEU&list=PLIY8eNdw5tW_lHyageTADFKBt9weJXndE

1s and 0s in a Computers Brain

1s and 0s are getting pushed and transformed in a computer in many ways. Transistors as switches play a big a role. We’ll use the example of a light bulb. 1s are like turning the light switch on and 0s would be turning it off. 1s has a 5V of battery while 0s have 0V of battery. 5V and 0V are the gates of different circuits which allows the electricity to go through. The truth table tells us which gate does each transistor goes through. so it could be between the 1s or 0s. So in terms of a light bulb the light will turn on at 5V which is a 1 while when off it will be at 0V which is a 0. Logic gates show us the different gates and transistors that could be paired with another switch and gate.

This video explains it all in a fun way.

The 1s and 0s in a Computers Brain

 

Bits, Bytes, and Representation of Information

In this chapter of the reading I picked up on a lot of things. I distinguished the difference between analog and digital. An analog device is something that varies smoothly and continuously in proportion to a change inn something else while a digital system deals with discrete values, so there are a fixed number of possible values. Another thing I learned is how we convert analog information into digital form. So analog information for example from a camera, is basically taking areas from an object and intaking the light from it while a digital camera takes colors and pixels.

Something I was to focus on is the whole information about sound. The height of the sound pressure wave is the sound intensity and the horizontal dimension is time, the number of waves per second is the pitch. I found this very cool from the reading because with that information we can determine so much. While I was reading this I was imagining all the things we can hear in space with the new technology and make we can figure out what it is.

Analog Tape Recording vs. Direct to Digital

This video above is a man who shows what’s different between an analog tape to digital with sound.

What’s in a Computer?

A computer is made of many different complicated parts on the inside and looks so easy and smooth on the outside. Computers have been very important in todays world as they help everyone from students to business people to keep their lives running.

Some things that are in a computer is:

CPU

RAM

Hard disk, SSD

Display Screen

Mouse, Keyboard, Touchpad

CD/DVD, Camera, Speaker, Microphone

 

Although there are many more things that make up a computer. I want to focus more on the mouse, keyboard and touchpad. They have improved so much throughout the year and they have made them very simple. Mouses have became more and more easier to function and a lot of mouses are wireless now making it more comfortable for the user. As for the keyboard, there have been so many shortcuts added and processing the letters to the screen has improved. Touchpad is the future and right now my laptop has a touchpad and I use it a lot. it is very convenient.

Evolution of Keyboards

This is an interesting a fun video to watch as it shows the evolution of Apple keyboards from 1983-2015.