All posts by Ian Ziegler

Ziegler Blog 13: The Journey Comes to a Close

“It’s a dangerous business, Frodo, going out of your door. You step into the road, and if you don’t keep your feet, there’s no knowing where you might be swept off to” – Bilbo Baggins

I can’t believe our journey together is coming to an end. I know how difficult this year has been for everyone, you should all be proud of how hard you worked. I want to thank all of you for your help throughout the semester, all of your critiques and suggestions were so helpful . I thoroughly enjoyed this semester together and was so appreciative of everyone’s support. I also want to thank Dr. Lowe for her guidance throughout the semester. The way she structured the course made it manageable even though it was such an extensive research project. Furthermore, I found her feedback to be thorough and quite valuable in helping me develop my analysis. I was dreading this course at first, but Dr. Lowe and you all have made it an enjoyable adventure I will never forget!

On Wednesday I presented my Power Point. I was quite nervous and overwhelmed so I feel like I could have done a better job but I am satisfied with how it turned out. That was a very difficult day for me. I found out that morning from my cousin that my Uncle Alan had passed that night before, just a year after his wife, my Aunt Nancy had passed from Covid. My cousin and I were actually born on the same exact day, and I spent most summers at their house, so they were like my second parents. She was a high school history teacher and was always so passionate about learning and history. My Uncle Alan was also an educator, a professor of education with a passion for history as well. They instilled this passion in me, and I am forever grateful.

My Mom and I on the Left my older cousin Greg in the Middle and my Aunt Nancy and cousin Scott on the right

The Wednesday I presented also happened to be the one year anniversary of my best friends death. After years of battling mesothelioma my friend Mike passed away last April, leaving behind his 4 year old daughter Riley and wife Jessica. My fiancee and I have done our best to be there for them both during this difficult time. And often when I think about giving up I think of Mike and his courage and it gives me strength to carry on, so I also want to thank him for giving me strength on this journey.

Mike and I playing our favorite game together, Destiny

This week I have received comments from Dr. Lowe and I will continue to edit my paper while including some further analysis of my sources . I can’t wait to hear all the presentations on Wednesday! Best of luck to everyone now and in the future! Keep in touch! And thank you all again for an unforgettable experience!

Ziegler Blog 12: Just Keep Swimming

It’s the final countdown!

This week I completed my revised full draft and did a peer review with Wei. I feel as if my paper is almost complete. I just need to develop my conclusion further and add some more evidence to support my claims. I am also anxiously waiting to hear back from the Verzets Museum regarding my primary sources so I can include more analysis of them for my research.

I am currently working on my presentation for the project due this upcoming Wednesday. I have developed an outline to determine the structure of my presentation including the key information I plan on sharing. I have also begun to collect images pertinent to my research to display as I am discussing my topic.

The Oversteegen Sisters
Jeannie Rousseau

I am definitely nervous about presenting to the class but after researching and writing on the same topic all semester, I feel confident that we all are going to do great, and I am looking forward to hearing everyone’s presentations!

Ziegler Blog 11: Road Map Paragraphs and 2nd Drafts

This week has been challenging, as the semester begins to dwindle, I am struggling with juggling all my work. Each Wednesday seems to come faster and faster. However, I have found the structure of this course to be quite helpful.

Do. Or Do not. There is no try.

We turned in our full rough drafts on Wednesday and I am at about 5,000 words. Jayne and I did peer reviews which is always a great way to recognize areas which need work. I feel like I have plenty of content from secondary sources other than the few additional women I would like to include but I need to introduce more content based off the primary sources. I am just waiting to hear back from the Verzets Museum regarding the specific artifacts I was planning on using to support my research. I also want to read through my entire paper from beginning to end once again as tedious as that feels and try and develop transitions and conclusions which make the paper flow.

After hours of research and editing Weasley has had enough

Dr.Lowe challenged us to come up with a road map paragraph if we hadn’t already for our next draft. Upon investigation I did not seem to have a clear road map paragraph. This is what I developed:

In this study I assert that women played an integral role in the resistance movements in occupied countries during the Second World War. I will compare the ways in which the French and Dutch resistance forces represented and remembered the experiences of women resisters. Furthermore, I will discuss the shift in understanding and recognition of women resisters of WWII from the 1940’s to now.

Weasley helps out with some peer review

Ziegler Week 10: The 404 FOUTMELDING Freak Out

This week I continued to develop my full rough draft due this upcoming Wednesday. I am working on introducing more information on the occupations of each city to help the reader understand the unique circumstances of women in the resistance as well as including a few more women’s experiences. I have gathered a plethora of secondary sources which I have researched at length. However, I wanted to delve deeper into my primary sources. This would lead to my first major snag of the semester. I had discovered an incredible digital archive, provided by the Verzets Resistance Museum in Amsterdam. When I went to click on the links I had saved previously…

Translation: 404 Error Message

404 FOUTMELDING! Over and over again, each link I clicked! 404 ERROR MESSAGE …I couldn’t believe it… how could this be happening to me! I released a guttural howl and went into full meltdown mode…

After my fiancée was able to get me to calm down…

I found the contact information for the museum and emailed them as well as sent a direct message to their Instagram. They replied saying they had recently updated the website and to send the links I was using so they could see where it had been moved to. After sending the links, this was their reply…

I have sent over an email with the exact artifacts I was researching. I am disappointed I lost such a great resource, however, I am excited to be working directly with the museum and I look forward to hearing back from them soon.

Ziegler Week 9: Mini Draft 2 & Peer Review

This week I completed my mini-draft part 2 and took part in a peer review. I began by discussing the complex and unique dynamics of French society, especially regarding gender and how this may have affected the portrayal of women in the French resistance. I continued by introducing a cast of heroines to exemplify the extraordinary impact women had on the resistance.

These Included:

Marie-Madeline Fourcade

Codename Hedgehog, Fourcade help start and lead the French resistance group known as “Alliance”

Jeannie Rousseau

Rousseau would go undercover, posing as a translator and would discover the German plans to build a testing site and base for their new “superweapon” the V2 rocket

Marianne Cohn

Cohn specialized in hiding Jewish families and helping them escape occupied territories


I also plan on adding stories about Germaine Tillion and Genevieve De Gaulle. In 2014, their ashes would be interred in the Pantheon. An honor previously bestowed to only one woman. Nobel prize winning, renowned scientist, Marie Curie.

Peer Review

The peer review was quite helpful. We discussed the need to elaborate further on these women’s stories. I have begun to research each woman individually further and have found some great sources.  We also agreed that it would be beneficial to add more context regarding the occupation to help the reader understand the extent of the bravery these women possessed. To grasp the weight of their sacrifice, the reader must understand the brutal reality of their circumstances.

Ziegler Week 8: Mini Drafts

This week we turned in our first mini draft. I also met with Jayne to complete a peer review. It was so helpful to have someone else look over my work and give me constructive criticism.

 As I had delved into my resources on the Dutch resistance more extensively, I chose to focus on that aspect of my paper first. I began by introducing the Dutch resistance and then discussed the role women played within the resistance itself. I focused on the Oversteegen sisters, Freddie and Truus Oversteegen, as well as Hannie Schaft. These women were remarkable heroines who played a significant role in the Dutch resistance. Hannie Schaft’s body would even be exhumed from a mass grave in the dunes and she was given a state funeral. At the funeral, the returned Dutch leader from exile, Queen Willhelmina, declared Hannie, “The Symbol of the Resistance”. Hannie also received several posthumous awards, including the Willhelmina Resistance Cross and the Medal of Freedom from General Eisenhower.

Hannie Schaft an Truus Oversteegen in disguise

 Today her sacrifice is still remembered. In 1982, a memorial sculpture created by Truus Oversteegen would be displayed in their former home of Haarlem to commemorate Hannie’s accomplishments and annually on the last Sunday of November the Dutch remember the life of Hannie Schaft.

Hannie Schaft Memorial

As I continue to develop my paper, I am going to further examine the differences in how women in the Dutch resistance were celebrated compared to those in the French resistance. For my Mini Draft 2 I will introduce the French resistance, discuss its unique dynamics, and introduce a few women who played significant roles within the resistance.

Ziegler Week 7: The Fellowship of the Senior Capstone

This week I turned in my “thesis, 2 paragraphs, and outline” assignment. I still feel like my thesis needs work, but it is evolving as I research more and more. Before class I met with Jayne, Izzy, Jackie, and David for an hour over zoom. We discussed the assignment and helped clarify questions or addressed concerns as a group. I have found these meetings to be quite helpful. Not only is it great to have someone to bounce ideas off and edit your work but I have found with this class more than others we have begun to develop a nice sense of comradery. I believe because this is such a quintessential course in our time here at Temple, we are all feeling a little overwhelmed, but the “we are all in this together” mentality is helpful.

For my two paragraphs I began working on a transition from my thesis to my claims. I have done this by introducing the reader to some basic information regarding the resistance movements in Europe, specifically in France and the Netherlands. I was able to find some great background information on the resistance in a digital text from:

International Conference on the History of the Resistance Movements. European Resistance Movements, 1939-1945. New York: Pergamom Press, 1960.

I was also thinking of including some information on traditional female roles in the Second World War and comparing the roles of women in the United States and Britain to those in occupied countries such as France and the Netherlands. For the first draft due Wednesday I will transition from this into my examination of the role women played in the French and Dutch resistance movement. I have noticed some differences between the two movements and their representation of women within them. Although the traditional French history incudes female narratives, they largely ignore the experience of women while celebrating the male leaders of the resistance. (sexism & unique dynamics of French Culture, oneness) However, in the Netherlands there seems to be more recognition regarding the efforts of the brave women of the resistance and their importance to the movement. (movies, books, memorials)

I cannot believe it is already week 7 and we are getting to the “meat and potatoes” of our papers. As daunting as this project has been, I have really appreciated the way the course has been set up in that it helps us build our paper step by step and that I know we are all on this journey together.

Ziegler Week 6: Historiography, Peer Review, and Outlines

This week I completed my historiography regarding the role of women in the French Resistance specifically. The three sources I compared were:

Andrieu, Claire. “Women in the French Resistance: Revisiting the Historical Record.” French Politics, Culture & Society 18, no. 1 (2000): 13-27.

Wieviorka, Olivier. The French Resistance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2016.

Potter, Charles. The Resistance, 1940: an anthology of writings from the French Underground. Baton Rouge, LA, Louisiana State University Press, 2016.

I analyzed the information, considering their chronological order and found some intriguing differences and similarities in the arguments presented by the authors. Andrieu argues that although women’s voices are shared in narratives regarding events that occurred during the resistance, in neither the narrative nor the statistical analysis of the resistance is “the women’s experience studied”. Through my analysis of the other two sources, I found this to be true. Wieviorka makes little attempt to include women’s perspectives, and even though Potter includes some female narratives, the key figures and events examined are focused on men. In conclusion I found that although there has been an effort to include the stories of women in the resistance, the experience of women and the relation to the occupation as well as the repression of the resistance is largely unstudied.

During class I conducted a peer review with Jackie and Jimmy. We filled out a peer review sheet in which we checked off boxes regarding revisions. I found this to be quite helpful. Both Jackie and Jimmy identified that I needed to work on an intro to better frame the argument I am going to make as well as a conclusion to present my findings.

Furthermore, I have begun revising my introduction of the paper itself and developing my first few paragraphs as well as an outline. I am struggling somewhat in figuring out how I want to transition from my introduction into my body paragraphs. I am thinking of comparing the role women played in the United States versus Europe, and how the occupation affected these roles.

Baby-Steps, Zoom Meetings, & Historiography

This week I met up with my fellow classmates, Jackie, Wei, and Izzy to work on our papers together over zoom. We met for an hour before class on Wednesday. I had already completed my “Baby Steps to historiography” assignment so I used this time to edit my work and begin my historiography. It was helpful to ask one another questions when needed and bounce ideas off each other.

For my “Baby -Steps” assignment, I wrote a review of Olivier Wieviorka’s, “The French Resistance”. I included how the book was organized and the argument the author is trying to make. Although the text is not about women in the French Resistance specifically, I believe it is an effective source in providing a broad explanation of the French Resistance and its importance in the Second World War. I will also explore the author’s definition of “resistance” in comparison to other expert opinions on the subject.

This is where my historiography begins…

Historiography can very simply be defined as the history of history; meaning historiography is the study of how history was written, by whom, and why it was recorded as such. Moreover, it is a look at if and how historical events have been reinterpreted by historians over time and why.

Historians are flawed, they often express bias, contradictions, and the trends of their times. Looking at how various historians approach the same topic is incredibly useful. It reveals how much scholars can learn from each other by looking at a topic through different interpretive lens’.

For my historiography I will be analyzing and comparing three texts regarding the French Resistance.

  1. Wieviorka, Olivier. The French Resistance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2016.
  2. Andrieu, Claire. “Women in the French Resistance: Revisiting the Historical Record.” French Politics, Culture & Society 18, no. 1 (2000): 13-27.
  3. Potter, Charles. The Resistance, 1940: an anthology of writings from the French Underground. Baton Rouge, LA, Louisiana State University Press, 2016.




Ziegler Week 4: Storyboards and Bookbots


This week I worked on creating a storyboard for my research paper. I began with my introduction which introduces my main argument. This is (for the moment) that although women are credited for their efforts during the second world war, the common perception is these contributions were limited to factory and agricultural work at home as well as medical staff on the front. However, women played a crucial role fighting for and working with the underground resistance movements throughout Europe. These movements were vital to allied victory and women played an active role within them. Therefore, women were integral to the success of the allied powers in occupied Europe.


  1. The traditional history regarding women in the Second World War leaves out an important narrative, women in the resistance movements.
  2. The resistance movements played a vital role in the defeat of the Axis powers in Europe.
  3. Women played an integral role in the resistance movements.
  4. Women in the French Resistance
  5. Women in the Dutch Resistance
  6. Unique Dynamics of French and Dutch Society
  7. Were the stories of women in the resistance told then? How were they portrayed? How are the stories or legacies of these women depicted now?


These are just a few examples of the remarkable acts of courage exhibited by women of the resistance movements. Just as the underground resistance forces would turn out to be essential in combatting the Axis powers in occupied Europe, woman would prove themselves to be vital in creating, developing, and supporting these resistance movements. In the face of danger and discrimination these women fought for what they believed was right while challenging and overcoming overwhelming prejudice.

Details that I’d like to include but I don’t know where yet:

I have found sources for the traditional roles women participated in during the second world war in the United States, however I would like to discover more information on the war effort in Europe regarding women.

New Findings!

I began researching the war in Europe, specifically France and the Netherlands in an effort to discover a character similar to the United States’ “Rosie the Riveter”. What I found took my research in an unexpected direction. Although women in Great Britain partook in the war effort in similar ways to women in the United States, the unique dynamic of the German Blitzkrieg and the occupation of Poland, France, and the Netherlands left little opportunity for an organized war effort. These countries simply were not contributing to the war in the same way. Many of the men were taken away to work camps or executed, leaving the women behind to care for the home front. However, this was not all they would do. Many would participate in the underground resistance movements and have active roles within them, distributing illegal papers, hiding their Jewish neighbors, and carrying out assassinations.

Therefore, I have begun to rework my storyboard. I will begin with my introduction, then I will discuss the traditional roles of women in the United States during the war, followed by an explanation of the occupation of France and the Netherlands by the Germans and how these effected the dynamic of women at war in Europe, comparing those to the roles held in the United States. I will continue by discussing the resistance movements as a response to the occupation and the active role which women played within them. I will examine the French and the Dutch resistance to support my claims.

New Books!

I have begun to delve into my secondary sources, pulling out any primary source material when possible. I took out three books from the Charles Library so far, The Resistance, 1940 by Potter, The Resistance Fighters: The Immense Struggle of Holland During World War II by Hoogstraten, and Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust, edited by Laska. I am examining these further to develop my Historiography and will be meeting with a classmate or two to begin working on writing together as well.