During my research this week I found two new articles, Incarcerated Sport: Nisei Women’s Softball and Athletics during Japanese American Internment (2000) and Extraordinary Circumstances ,Exceptional Practices: Music in Japanese American Concentration Camps (2005). Incarcerated Sport has similar primary and secondary sources that I have utilized throughout my research paper so far, is this positive or negative? In addition, I am unsure how many footnotes I should incorporate, is 20 too little, or 50 too much? How many is too many on each page? Also, I mentioned in class my organization is terrible and this weekend I spent some time cleaning up my “working” bibliography, with hopes that it will allow a more fluid approach as I come close to the home stretch
Wednesday’s class was extremely informative, both classmates were through and critical as they both addressed a handful of issues I should work on, such as, word choice, maintaining the past tense while writing and provide a road map. In addition, I attempted to reorganize my notes into different folders, although I haven’t completed it, I find it has been easier to locate information that I need (I wish I started doing this in the beginning). I am currently working on completing my 5000 words for our next meeting and updating my introductory paragraphs an these statement section. Finally, I have started the last section of my paper dealing with recreation, I am having a difficult time starting off because there is a lot to write about, I think when I narrow down exactly which activities I will focus on, that will provide me with an easier time completing the last section.
During my research this week, I continued to work on the assignment for Wednesday class. I have roughly completed 1500 words, so far and the focus on this section of the paper has leaned towards daily life in internment camps and providing information that supports the first part of my thesis, which is that terminology should remain the same, as internment camps not concentration camps. I have transitioned into the significance of sports and recreation (baseball and arts), to begin the support the second part of my thesis.
In addition, I have reviewed several new resources. Daniel L. Dustin article “Baseball saved us”:
Recreation as refuge in a world war ii Japanese American prison camp provided
the different roles of sports and recreation in the prisoner’s lives at
Manzanar camp, such as how these two provided some normalcy and stability.
After reading Citizen 13660, I came across a similar book
with illustrations that provided insight to the daily life within these
internment camps. Camp II Block 211: Daily life in an Internment Camp by Jap
Matsuoka. I also started reading different interviews in the oral history
project, Regenerations: Rebuilding Japanese American Families Communities and Civil
Rights in the Resettlement Era. These interviews also provided additional
insight into the daily lives of internment prisoners. Finally, I checked out
Farewell to Manzanar, it is the true story of a families survival in these
camps, that has be compared to the Diary of Anne Frank.
During my research this week, I completed my introduction and my outline. The outline has helped me stay on top of what I want to write about. In addition, I have updated my historiography section of my paper. I originally used two primary sources in this section but since then I have updated to two new secondary sources. As of late, I am having a difficult time organizing all my sources, I started out using RefWorks, but I have since abandoned RefWorks and I have misplaced a lot of additional sources. Organization and time management has been challenging for me lately, but these weekly assignments have provided an easy transition from one section of my research paper to the next.
Over this weekend I have worked on how I am going to transition from the historiography section into the first section of my paper. I want to focus and introduce how the Japanese prisoners spent most of their day. Providing the reader a basic understanding about daily life is camp is important before I begin to illustrate the significance of sports and recreation within these camps. I started my reviewing more interviews and finally finished reading Citizen 16066. The plan for the next 10 days is to complete the section of this paper about daily life within these internment camps and set up how I am going to demonstrate the importance of sports and recreation for the Japanese-American prisoners.
During my research this week I completed my historiography I had a ton of different sources that I wanted to use for this section of this paper and it was difficult limiting myself. Although I feel that this not a finished product yet, I will add additional sources, the historiography I completed is a good start to where I want to move towards. I decided to use these sources because they will support the main ideas and questions within my paper, such as, life within the camps, importance of recreation and sports within the camps and a general overview of the internment camps.
I haven’t completed any new research this week, but instead I have focused on writing and picking out different quotes within the primary and secondary sources I have already collected to help support my questions and ideas. Also, this weekend I have continued to work on my outline and introduction paragraphs for the assignment that is due on Wednesday. As I mentioned last week, I want to add additional information about the terminology that I will use within my research paper. As I work to complete these weekly assignments, I have realized that I currently have about seven pages completed, which was a shocking surprise how easily the page count is adding up.
During my research this week I continued to work on my outline, introduction paragraphs and my historiography. In my introduction I want to mention my choice on terminology that I have decided to utilize within this research paper. I’ve noticed that a large majority of historians mention their terminology in their works and I felt I should follow their examples, so I have worked on a paragraph outlining which type of terminology I will follow. One of the leading historians in Japanese-American internment is Roger Daniels and his article “Words Matter: A Note on Inappropriate Terminology and the Incarceration of the Japanese American” provided me with a solid templet, but I disagree on his choice of concentration camps, for that I have decided to use internment camps for reasons that will be stated within the introductory paragraphs.
In addition, I have narrowed my secondary sources that I will use in my historiography, although I won’t limit myself to these four sources, I am sure by the end I will have added more to this section of the paper. Although I haven’t finished my historiography I have finished two reviews of the four sources so far.
Finally, two new sources that I have gathered and partially reviewed are the graphic novel Citizen 13660 by Mine Okubo, this book provides a detailed memoir and insight to life within camps, with her illustrations that enhance the story. Another memoir I have found is Farewell to Manzanar, this book follows the Wakatsukis family during their experiences of internment.
During my research this week, I have continued to work on my outline and I have started writing my introduction and my thesis paragraphs. In the introduction, I want to provide a basic outline or background information of the Japanese-American internment, more specifically a basic timeline of events of the history of what happened and then introduce my thesis statement.
In addition, yesterday I visited Washington D.C. to view the exhibit, Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans and World War II in the National Museum of American History. One of the most significant documents in the exhibit was a reproduction of President’s Franklin Roosevelt’s’ Executive Order 9066 on loan from the National Archives and Records Administration.
Viewing these objects gave me a different perspective into the past and provided additional insight to the daily camp life, items such as, marriage certificates, death certificates, birth certificates, baseball gloves, to arts and crafts illustrated that life carried on within these internment camps.
This exhibit also provided me with how terminology has changed throughout the years. In the beginning of the semester I decided on the interment topic but wanted to incorporate how or why terminology hasn’t changed but I realized now it has. One term has remained the same, why has the term internment camps not changed to concentration camps? This exhibit was a unique and effective way of learning about Japanese-American internment, a welcome change from the past few weeks of eye-burning reading and researching. I am searching for a way to incorporate this trip into my research paper. I provided some photos of my trip at the end of this post.
Finally, after Wednesday’s class in the Special Collections Research Center, I attempted to locate something that would pertain to my subject in the archives, so I can fully experience the procedure of utilizing the archives. I found Charles R. Allen’s Concentration Camps, U.S.A. book and I requested to view in the reading room, which I plan to view sometime next week.
During my research this week I have read two articles about Japanese-American internment. I started with these two articles to gain a better perspective on the total historiography of this issue.
Incarceration of the Japanese Americans: A Sixty-Year perspective by Roger Daniels
Justice Deferred: A Fifty-Year Perspective of Japanese-Internment Historiography by Gerald Stanley
After reading the Daniels article I delved further into his other work and he has written extensively on the internment, which will provided me with additional secondary sources if needed. His books Concentration Camps North America and Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress both provide excellent information on Japanese-American internment. I started preparing for my 600-800 word historiography and I think summing up all we know on internment will push the limits on the total word count. Another comprehensive historiography I’ve found so far is Personal Justice Denied: The Report of the Commissions on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians by George Miller which I located in our National Archives. After reading the summary of this report, I think I have a solid starting point to working on my historiography due on February 20th.
In addition, after I received feedback from my proposal I have attempted to improve and develop a concise thesis statement, which continues to evolve on a daily basis. Also, Ray suggested I review the documentary Children of the Camps by Satsuki Ina. I watched this film via amazon and this is a powerful film (sometimes difficult to watch) that establishes the raw emotions created by the effects of incarceration.
Finally, I have briefly started working on a basic outline for my research paper. Although I haven’t completed the outline yet, I have created a simple templet that will assist me in knocking out specific areas of my research paper, starting with my thesis and historiography.
The first place that I looked into for some background reading and an overview is the Encyclopedia of Japanese American history: an A-Z reference from 1868 to the present. Today I started to review two online sites, the Densho encyclopedia and The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive from the Bancroft Library at University of California Berkeley both providing several primary sources and background information.
The first and most obvious primary source that I have reviewed this week was Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066 which he issued on February 19 1942. This order authorized the evacuation and relocation of all persons considered to be threat to national security. Within six months over 120,000 men, women and children of Japanese ancestry were confined into internment camps. After reviewing this in our national archives, I wanted to pursue more about how and why FDR issued this executive order so I found a book called By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans written by Greg Robinson. This book seems to focus on the political aspects of explaining how FDR and his cabinet developed and passed this order.
In addition, I have looked into the three of the important wartime court cases, Hirabayashi vs US, Korematsu vs US and Yasui vs US, these three cases all challenged that the order violated their rights, these cases were reopened in the 80’s and they eventually nullified their convictions during the war.
Finally, I came across Beyond Words: Images from America’s Concentration Camps this book provided heart-rending photos, art and interviews by Japanese-Americans who were detained, looking through books like this it’s difficult to understand how internment was allowed to happen in the United States.
My name is Stephen White. I am a majoring in History with a minor in Political Science. I recently returned to Temple University after an absence of well over a decade. I enjoy reading about United States history and politics, more specifically military history and diplomatic history. After graduation, I plan on attending Drexel University to pursue a Master’s degree in Library Science, specializing in digital technology services. As a non-traditional student Drexel’s online program will fit my schedule perfectly and will allow me to continue my education as a part-time student while still working in my current full-time position. In the end, I would like to transfer to my employer’s library department and work within the library at some capacity.
Last semester in my modern Japan intermediate writing course I argued that Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan was a justified and necessary decision. I would like to continue my research within the same time frame. I am currently leaning towards writing a traditional research paper on the Japanese internment in the United States. I would like to explore events that happened here within the United States during World War II. Personally, I haven’t explored much on the stateside history during the war and I feel I could enjoy researching this topic. The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States that incarcerated approximately 120,000 after the attack on Pearl Harbor has always interested me, but I never dived into the details. I would focus specifically on issues, such as, relocation, life within the camps, racism, understanding whether it constitutional or not. Finally, looking into the reparations provided by the federal government to the survivors of the internment camps years later.
A few years ago the federal government passed the National Defense Authorization Act with a clause that basically allows the government to indefinitely detain American citizens, which could be seen as a violation of the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The similarities are interesting and both seem to be directed at protecting the United States but at the cost of civil liberties. These are other aspects I would like to explore as I research Japanese internment in the United States.