Research blog #12 Final blog post – Stephen White

During this week I completed my presentation although it was brief I believed that I provided a general idea of what I did my research paper on. As for polishing up my research paper, I feel that I should address that there were 3 different generations who were interned. About 80,000 were Nisei (American born Japanese with US citizenship and Sansei (their children) and finally Issei who were immigrants born in Japan. In all my drafts so far I haven’t included this important statistic, I am planning on incorporating somewhere in my introductory paragraphs or after my historiography. Also I would like to add more to the last section of the paper without stretching it too much that it seems I am adding words just to hit a specific

In addition, I am still working on adding notes in footnote area, this is new territory for me as I never added notes in any of my previous papers and I am feeling anxious about getting the structure correct without added too much information. This weekend my plan is to read each page of my paper out loud and attempted to work on polishing up one page at a time, with the hope that it assists me correcting some mistakes I have made.

Finally, since this our last blog post I wanted to thank my classmates for all of the suggestions about my paper, you have been extremely helpful with improving my paper. Also thanks for making an older student feel welcome, it’s been tough spending some of my afternoons with students half my age. Finally, thanks for all the congratulatory words after the birth of my daughter. Enjoy the summer. Stephen

Research blog- Stephen White

During this week I completed my second full draft and after Wednesdays class I incorporated all the suggestions and corrections from Prof. Lowe and Audrey. One concern was addressing my constant habit of utilizing a passive voice. I have worked on correcting this during the weekend. In addition, I have switched a couple paragraphs at the end of my paper to allow the conclusion to flow smoother. After Wednesday class I looked through the critique of my paper, and made some new improvements. I have worked on a clear and concise road map and I wanted to rearrange my introduction paragraph and my conclusion so if they were swapped there would be no confusion on what my research paper was about. I also noticed that I didn’t provide any countering secondary sources in my historiography, although I haven’t added as of yet I am working on finding an additional source to add. Finally, I realized that I could work on my transitional sentences at the end of each supporting ideas, in some I provide one but in others I am missing them.

In addition, I have focused on my main priority for Wednesday 17th presentation. This weekend I have completed about ten slides and I am working on the transcripts for each slide.  I have been recording my voice over each slide and as of Sunday everything is coming together as best as possible. The major problem is the recording is slightly muffled and the volume is low, I am currently working on these two issues before Wednesdays deadline. The final objective on my list for this class is giving my paper to two additional peers review my paper, with the hopes that they will provide additional insight and perspective that will help complete this assignment.

Research blog- Stephen White

During my research this week I was not as productive as usual due to the new addition to my family. I attempted to squeeze in two pages last minute on different activities, such as sumo wrestling and judo. Professor Lowe suggested that I could incorporate photos, I added on of Ansel Adams famous photographs of the time he spent working on internment camps.  I also added two new important block quotes in an attempt to check off the necessary boxes to make my research paper seem more professional. On Wednesday I picked up my last two books obtained through inter library loan process.

Through a Diamond: 100 Years of Japanese American Baseball by Kerry Yo Nakagawa

The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Interment Camps 1942-1946

In addition, I have started working on my presentation. I have selected approximately ten to fifteens slides for the PowerPoint presentation and working towards recording my voice over onto the slides. Finally, after I receive my notes on my first full draft I plan on added more to the conclusion and attempt to bulk up the last section of my paper. Overall, I am happy with how my paper is moving along with the exception of the last few pages. The next two weeks I plan on ironing out these details to allow more balance for this project. Working on my citations and notes are one wrinkle that needs tweaking and I would like to work on my transition sentences. I have this problem where I typically end a paragraph with a citation, when I should be adding a few more sentences to complete my ideas that support my claims.

Research #9 Stephen White

During my research this week I found two new articles, Incarcerated Sport: Nisei Women’s Softball and Athletics during Japanese American Internment (2000) and Extraordinary Circumstances ,Exceptional Practices: Music in Japanese American Concentration Camps (2005). Incarcerated Sport has similar primary and secondary sources that I have utilized throughout my research paper so far, is this positive or negative? In addition, I am unsure how many footnotes I should incorporate, is 20 too little, or 50 too much? How many is too many on each page? Also, I mentioned in class my organization is terrible and this weekend I spent some time cleaning up my “working” bibliography, with hopes that it will allow a more fluid approach as I come close to the home stretch

Wednesday’s class was extremely informative, both classmates were through and critical as they both addressed a handful of issues I should work on, such as, word choice, maintaining the past tense while writing and provide a road map. In addition, I attempted to reorganize my notes into different folders, although I haven’t completed it, I find it has been easier to locate information that I need (I wish I started doing this in the beginning). I am currently working on completing my 5000 words for our next meeting and updating my introductory paragraphs an these statement section.  Finally, I have started the last section of my paper dealing with recreation, I am having a difficult time starting off because there is a lot to write about, I think when I narrow down exactly which activities I will focus on, that will provide me with an easier time completing the last section.

Research #8 Stephen White

During my research this week, I continued to work on the assignment for Wednesday class. I have roughly completed 1500 words, so far and the focus on this section of the paper has leaned towards daily life in internment camps and providing information that supports the first part of my thesis, which is that terminology should remain the same, as internment camps not concentration camps. I have transitioned into the significance of sports and recreation (baseball and arts), to begin the support the second part of my thesis.

In addition, I have reviewed several new resources.  Daniel L. Dustin article “Baseball saved us”: Recreation as refuge in a world war ii Japanese American prison camp provided the different roles of sports and recreation in the prisoner’s lives at Manzanar camp, such as how these two provided some normalcy and stability.

After reading Citizen 13660, I came across a similar book with illustrations that provided insight to the daily life within these internment camps. Camp II Block 211: Daily life in an Internment Camp by Jap Matsuoka. I also started reading different interviews in the oral history project, Regenerations: Rebuilding Japanese American Families Communities and Civil Rights in the Resettlement Era. These interviews also provided additional insight into the daily lives of internment prisoners. Finally, I checked out Farewell to Manzanar, it is the true story of a families survival in these camps, that has be compared to the Diary of Anne Frank.

Research #7 Stephen White

During my research this week, I completed my introduction and my outline. The outline has helped me stay on top of what I want to write about. In addition, I have updated my historiography section of my paper. I originally used two primary sources in this section but since then I have updated to two new secondary sources. As of late, I am having a difficult time organizing all my sources, I started out using RefWorks, but I have since abandoned RefWorks and I have misplaced a lot of additional sources. Organization and time management has been challenging for me lately, but these weekly assignments have provided an easy transition from one section of my research paper to the next.

Over this weekend I have worked on how I am going to transition from the historiography section into the first section of my paper. I want to focus and introduce how the Japanese prisoners spent most of their day. Providing the reader a basic understanding about daily life is camp is important before I begin to illustrate the significance of sports and recreation within these camps. I started my reviewing more interviews and finally finished reading Citizen 16066. The plan for the next 10 days is to complete the section of this paper about daily life within these internment camps and set up how I am going to demonstrate the importance of sports and recreation for the Japanese-American prisoners.

Research #6 Stephen White

During my research this week I completed my historiography I had a ton of different sources that I wanted to use for this section of this paper and it was difficult limiting myself. Although I feel that this not a finished product yet, I will add additional sources, the historiography I completed is a good start to where I want to move towards. I decided to use these sources because they will support the main ideas and questions within my paper, such as, life within the camps, importance of recreation and sports within the camps and a general overview of the internment camps.

I haven’t completed any new research this week, but instead I have focused on writing and picking out different quotes within the primary and secondary sources I have already collected to help support my questions and ideas. Also, this weekend I have continued to work on my outline and introduction paragraphs for the assignment that is due on Wednesday. As I mentioned last week, I want to add additional information about the terminology that I will use within my research paper. As I work to complete these weekly assignments, I have realized that I currently have about seven pages completed, which was a shocking surprise how easily the page count is adding up.

Research #5 Stephen White

During my research this week I continued to work on my outline, introduction paragraphs and my historiography. In my introduction I want to mention my choice on terminology that I have decided to utilize within this research paper. I’ve noticed that a large majority of historians mention their terminology in their works and I felt I should follow their examples, so I have worked on a paragraph outlining which type of terminology I will follow. One of the leading historians in Japanese-American internment is Roger Daniels and his article “Words Matter: A Note on Inappropriate Terminology and the Incarceration of the Japanese American” provided me with a solid templet, but I disagree on his choice of concentration camps, for that I have decided to use internment camps for reasons that will be stated within the introductory paragraphs.

In addition, I have narrowed my secondary sources that I will use in my historiography, although I won’t limit myself to these four sources, I am sure by the end I will have added more to this section of the paper. Although I haven’t finished my historiography I have finished two reviews of the four sources so far.


Finally, two new sources that I have gathered and partially reviewed are the graphic novel Citizen 13660 by Mine Okubo, this book provides a detailed memoir and insight to life within camps, with her illustrations that enhance the story. Another memoir I have found is Farewell to Manzanar, this book follows the Wakatsukis family during their experiences of internment.

Research blog 4 Stephen White

During my research this week, I have continued to work on my outline and I have started writing my introduction and my thesis paragraphs. In the introduction, I want to provide a basic outline or background information of the Japanese-American internment, more specifically a basic timeline of events of the history of what happened and then introduce my thesis statement.

In addition, yesterday I visited Washington D.C. to view the exhibit, Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans and World War II in the National Museum of American History. One of the most significant documents in the exhibit was a reproduction of President’s Franklin Roosevelt’s’ Executive Order 9066 on loan from the National Archives and Records Administration.

Viewing these objects gave me a different perspective into the past and provided additional insight to the daily camp life, items such as, marriage certificates, death certificates, birth certificates, baseball gloves, to arts and crafts illustrated that life carried on within these internment camps.

This exhibit also provided me with how terminology has changed throughout the years. In the beginning of the semester I decided on the interment topic but wanted to incorporate how or why terminology hasn’t changed but I realized now it has. One term has remained the same, why has the term internment camps not changed to concentration camps? This exhibit was a unique and effective way of learning about Japanese-American internment, a welcome change from the past few weeks of eye-burning reading and researching. I am searching for a way to incorporate this trip into my research paper. I provided some photos of my trip at the end of this post.

Finally, after Wednesday’s class in the Special Collections Research Center, I attempted to locate something that would pertain to my subject in the archives, so I can fully experience the procedure of utilizing the archives. I found Charles R. Allen’s Concentration Camps, U.S.A. book and I requested to view in the reading room, which I plan to view sometime next week.




Research Blog #3

During my research this week I have read two articles about Japanese-American internment. I started with these two articles to gain a better perspective on the total historiography of this issue.

Incarceration of the Japanese Americans: A Sixty-Year perspective by Roger Daniels

Justice Deferred: A Fifty-Year Perspective of Japanese-Internment Historiography by Gerald Stanley

After reading the Daniels article I delved further into his other work and he has written extensively on the internment, which will provided me with additional secondary sources if needed. His books Concentration Camps North America and Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress both provide excellent information on Japanese-American internment. I started preparing for my 600-800 word historiography and I think summing up all we know on internment will push the limits on the total word count. Another comprehensive historiography I’ve found so far is Personal Justice Denied: The Report of the Commissions on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians by George Miller which I located in our National Archives. After reading the summary of this report, I think I have a solid starting point to working on my historiography due on February 20th.

In addition, after I received feedback from my proposal I have attempted to improve and develop a concise thesis statement, which continues to evolve on a daily basis. Also, Ray suggested I review the documentary Children of the Camps by Satsuki Ina. I watched this film via amazon and this is a powerful film (sometimes difficult to watch) that establishes the raw emotions created by the effects of incarceration.

Finally, I have briefly started working on a basic outline for my research paper. Although I haven’t completed the outline yet, I have created a simple templet that will assist me in knocking out specific areas of my research paper, starting with my thesis and historiography.