Transmission Systems

In its simplest form a transmission system can be understood as a system that transmits information, messages, signals and more from one place to the next. In terms of the digital world, this is how computers transmit and exchange data. One aspect of a transmission system that we looked at was bandwidth; which is understood as “the capacity for data transfer of an electronic communications system, and a range of radio frequencies which is occupied by a modulated carrier wave, which is assigned to a service, or over which a device can operate.” This is one of the types of signal processing with a high capacity technique, that uses multiple different ranging frequencies.

There are two types of switching systems: circuit vs. packet. Though we will be focusing on packet switching; this system is how we connect and communicate with one another all around the world. This system works in a way similar to that of a mail room, where information that comes in is taken apart and organized into smaller groupings, called packages, and sent off, with each package traveling independently, transmitting the data over the internet. Then when they reach their destination and they’re reorganized and put back together. These packets are bits of information travelling at bytes per second. Some examples of packet switching are satellites or underwater cables.

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwj9qafs1fXdAhVBiOAKHRn2DTEQjRx6BAgBEAU&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.digitalnewsasia.com%2Fdigital-economy%2Fdigital-future-fragile-mix-promise-and-uncertainty-global-internet-report&psig=AOvVaw1niu9Tv2NfQEwNZYn9n2wI&ust=1539047629896722

For more information follow this link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjqiHLGO2p0

*Information presented is sourced from class powerpoints and lectures

Internet Pioneers

Timothy John Berners-Lee

The history of the web and the world wide and web as we now know it can be contributed to the innovative work of Timothy John Berners-Lee.
Better known as the inventor of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a software engineer, and a Computer Science Professor. Lee progressively led the way with the world wide web, that he created while working at CERN, by combining hypertext with the internet for information management in order to share and connect with the world. In terms of the digital world, Lee has had his hand in many different aspects. For instance, in one of his first employment positions he worked in distribution transaction systems, message relays, and bar technology. In Lee’s initial approach to the www, came about in 1999 with a vision that he presented called “Information Management: A Proposal.

Lee’s original proposal

A year later, with some revisions, in 1999 Lee came up with three fundamental practices that helped in the creation of the www,

1.HTML: HyperText Markup Language. The markup (formatting) language for the web.
2.URI: Uniform Resource Identifier. A kind of “address” that is unique and used to identify to each resource on the web. It is also commonly called a URL.
3.HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Allows for the retrieval of linked resources from across the web.

For those like myself who were not as versed in the world wide web, in learning about Lee it could be understood as the “World Wide Web (WWW) is a network of online content that is formatted in HTML and accessed via HTTP. The term refers to all the interlinked HTML pages that can be accessed over the Internet.” For most, the www (world wide web) is thought as merely the internet, though its everything like the web pages, audio, pictures, and video that you can find on the web. These original ideas gave birth to the foundation and forever changing word wide web and he interconnections throughout the world.

For more information go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OM6XIICm_qo

*information sourced from https://www.famousscientists.org/timothy-john-berners-lee/, and https://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/

Binary Encoding at Work

As we all know already the term “binary” relates to two digits used in encoding 0’s and 1’s. Whereas encoding is understood as translating a message into a code that is uniquely formed with only 0’s and 1’s, so as to be represented within the digital world. Encoding is therefore an integral part in the transmission channel within the digital world. Through this process, both messages and information can be translated from numbers, alphabets, and world languages so as to be represented digitally.

One popular form of coding is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), which was a form of encoding agreed upon by engineers and computer scientist that is known as the common standard code. This form of coding represents letters in the alphabet, numbers, numerous written languages throughout the world, and some of the symbols and commands found on a computer; because the text that we send is typed on a keyboard its necessary to be able to encode the message to be encoded by a computer system. Where the structure of ASCII is formed by a seven bit (binary digit) code. ASCII can be seen in numerous digital devices that are used in everyday life.

Later came another form of coding known as Unicode (UTF-8,Universal Coded Character Set + Transformation Format—8-bit); this form of coding is used for encoding characters or code points and uses a eight bit code. With UTF there are alternative forms of encoding like UTF-16 (variable-length) and UTF-32 (fixed-length), though even with these alternative forms of encoding, UTF-8 (variable-length) is the dominant form of character encoding that is used on the world wide web, since 2009.

*information sourced from class lectures and powerpoints

Understanding Bits

Our digital world today is a complex and forever changing system. As such, bits were originally created in order to help quantizing information into smaller and more understandable pieces, so that the information is organized into bits that hold values of 0 and 1. Bits can be understood as “the basic building blocks of information” that are understood using number systems like the decimal, binary, or hexadecimal number system. Where the term “Bit” stands for Binary Digit.

In terms of the binary number system, this is done because the natural world is formed through signals which are then turned into a binary system of 0’s and 1’s through sampling and quantization. This system helps to represent information accurately and uniquely. Because the wide ranging number of characters if using the alphabet, the combinations and characters become too much. Whereas a system of only 0’s and 1’s is that much simpler to understand. This number system is used over decimal and hexadecimal, because of its accuracy in encoding unique and standardized information. Another reason is because of the voltage swing that comes with using the binary system, rather than decimal. Much like if using the alphabet, decimal and hexadecimal number systems offer too many characters and is easier to understand more quickly and flawlessly.

This relates to my world because this is a system that is used is many different forms of technology. It is considered to be a standard method in representing things like information, sound, text, images, and videos; and in realizing that we may come to an overall understanding of the world around us. Understanding bits is a necessary aspect in understanding the digital world and the connections of communication (message, signal, and information.)

The Digital World

The digital world is a new and ever changing tool in the world of technology. The digital world is a source of information and communication within the world encompassing the people and things that surround us; a new and never ending resource. This system works throughout our daily life in terms of when communicating information there is a three part system including information, a signal, and a message. The system consists of several parts: input transducer, transmitter, transmission channel, receiver and output transducer.

Information is defined as knowledge and information being communicated

Signal is defined as a physical entity in which information is transmitted from a sender and reinterpreted to a receiver

Message is defined as the context in which knowledge is transmitted between sources

This is just the beginning, and one of the multitude of ways that our digital world works.

About Me!

My name is Alexandria Bingham, and I’m a second semester senior at Temple University. I am an Art History Major and a transfer student to Temple. I love travelling, reading, and my dogs. Through this course, I hope to get a better understanding of the digital world around me , its changes, and how to better use it and understand technology as a whole.