Inclusive Teaching = Effective Teaching

Increased student effort does not always guarantee academic success. In my ten-plus years as an academic support administrator in higher education, I found this to be true. My attempts to support students — providing them with guidance and proven study strategies — were sometimes undermined by instructors and learning spaces that did not meet the students’ learning needs. This phenomenon motivated me to investigate how the academy could hold educators more accountable for student success.

Through my research, I discovered canons of literature that alluded to the subversive ways in which learning structures can marginalize learners. On any given college campus, there are myriad potential learning spaces; the classroom is the only one that every student will encounter. But often the classroom contains unintentional barriers, because the instructor has not considered the diversity of learners and their needs.

How might educators proactively alleviate these barriers? My dissertation, Inclusive College Teaching: A Study of How Four Award-Winning Faculty Employ Universal Design Instruction, aimed to answer this question. It shed light on a multitude of inclusive teaching approaches that can be informed by the Universal Design for Learning framework. However, in my time working in faculty development, I have come to realize that the effectiveness of even these strategies heavily hinges on the mindset of the instructor.

Capacities-Based Mindset

Carol Dweck breaks down the concept of mindset into two categories: growth and fixed. A fixed mindset is a belief that people are inherently smart or dumb, good or bad, and that these characteristics will not change. People with this perspective commonly see challenges as a roadblock instead of an opportunity.

On the other hand, a growth mindset acknowledges that one can always gain knowledge and skills. This perspective enables teachers 1) to encourage students who are not succeeding to work harder to achieve, and 2) to challenge those who are succeeding to develop their learning muscles.

Dweck’s research yields evidence that instructors who communicate a growth mindset can cultivate like-minded students, which will nurture students’ academic resilience and increase the opportunity for student success.

A limited view of learners, however, has a deeper socio-psychological impact. Studies have shown that stereotype threat — which labels students in ways that impart low expectations — can undermine students’ academic performance.

To foster an inclusive classroom and an effective practice, educators must be willing to reflect on tacit personal biases and exclusionary teaching methods which limit students’ potential. Students’ chances of scholastic achievement are exponentially improved when their professors view them, separately and collectively, as capable learners.

Universal Design for Learning

Inclusive teaching frameworks like Universal Design for Learning (UDL) also call for educators to maintain a growth mindset. UDL invites educators to consider how a student’s range of strengths can be leveraged for learning.

Principles of Universal Design for Learning

Scholars posit that providing multiple modes of representation, engagement, and action and expression (assessment) best removes learning barriers from the classroom. This means presenting content in diverse ways, such as through speakers, demonstrations, and videos; interacting with students both in and out of class as well as addressing each one by name; and evaluating their progress toward achieving learning outcomes through means other than tests or essays. Instructors can seamlessly incorporate these strategies into their pedagogy in order to meet a wide range of learning needs.

Key Takeaways

With a growth mindset and UDL as a guide, professors can better educate a broad spectrum of learners and more effectively address the needs of traditionally marginalized groups. Inclusive teaching does not mean lowering the standards or goals for a course. It does, however, allow educators to create multiple, dynamic pathways for students to reach those goals.

Let’s Exchange EDvice…

What do you do to encourage success for all of your diverse students? How do you leverage a variety of teaching approaches to give students mutliple pathways to learning?

- – -

Carl Moore joined the TLC as an Assistant Director in January 2013 and has infused UDL in many of the workshops, encouraging educators to see inclusive and effective teaching as one and the same. Next academic year (2014-2015) Carl will conduct an Inclusive Teaching with Technology Teaching Circle. This teaching circle will provide Temple faculty with an opportunity to reflect deeply on their teaching practices and create course materials that are accessible to a range of abilities.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • RSS
  • email
  • PDF
  • Print
Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Response

How Learning Worked at Temple

Overview

More than 250 interdisciplinary faculty members from the Philadelphia region attended the 12th Annual Faculty Conference on Teaching Excellence, making it Temple University’s largest and most robust teaching and learning conference to date.

At the Teaching and Learning Center, we advocate for learning-centered educational experiences that require active participation. We held ourselves to that standard when developing the conference. Educators were given the opportunity to reflect on their effectiveness in the classroom, and dialogue with colleagues from across the disciplines about how to provide high­-quality education.

One of the new ways the TLC created an active learning environment for its participants was via social media. Attendees were invited to share their experiences and connect with one another using the hashtag #TLCFC14. In addition to hosting a live WebEx session of the plenary speakers’ presentations, we live-tweeted the keynote addresses and posted pictures and videos to Instagram throughout the day.

To relive the conference as it happened online, check out our recap on Storify.

Keynote Addresses

It was our honor to host Drs. Michele DiPietro and Marsha Lovett, co-authors of the book How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. Their keynotes synthesized 50 years of research on teaching and learning from cognitive, motivational, and developmental psychology, as well as diversity and inclusion studies.

Dr. Marsha C. Lovett presenting the morning keynote at the 2014 Faculty Conference on Teaching Excellence (#TLCFC14).

Between their talks, Drs. DiPietro and Lovett covered all seven learning principles and offered key results from the research as well as ways in which to implicate them in one’s teaching. The principles, Dr. Lovett assured, are “broadly applicable across domains, students, and contexts”; they can also “[help] faculty devise effective strategies for their [own classroom] situations.”

Dr. Lovett began the conference day with a discussion of the importance of helping students build and connect rich knowledge structures and supporting them in their development of mastery. Her presentation was based upon the findings — which can be found in the book — that:

  • “Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.” (How Learning Works chapter 1)

  • “How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.” (HLW chapter 2)

  • “To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.” (HLW chapter 4)

  • “Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning.” (HLW chapter 5; see also the EDvice Exchange blog post on the subject)

Dr. Lovett recommended teachers administer “prior knowledge” assessments, which evaluate a student’s familiarity of and experiences with subject material. In designing a course, it is important to remember, Dr. Lovett pointed out, that “content experts have rich, meaningful knowledge structures that support learning and performance,” whereas “novices tend to build sparse, superficial knowledge structures.” One strategy she offered was the creation of a “concept map,” so that instructors could base course material around a “big picture.”

In the afternoon general session, Dr. DiPietro highlighted the importance of student motivation, intellectual maturity, and strategic self-awareness, as they play out in the socio-emotional climate of the course. His presentation was based upon the findings that:

  • “Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.” (HLW chapter 3)

  • “Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.” (HLW chapter 6)

  • “To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.” (HLW chapter 7)

Dr. Michele DiPietro presenting the afternoon keynote at the 2014 Faculty Conference on Teaching Excellence (#TLCFC14).

At the end of each section, Dr. DiPietro noted what teachers “owe [their] students.” With regards to motivation, it is “learning environments that stay up-to-date with what students value, engage multiple goals, build self-efficacy, and are responsive and helpful.” When considering course climate, students need “learning environments that use the tools of the disciplines to engage and embrace complexity” and that “are explicitly inclusive in methods and content.” And finally, self-directed learners thrive in “learning environments that foster metacognitive awareness and a lifelong learning disposition.”

You can access the PowerPoints and WebEx recordings of both keynotes on the conference website, under “Resources.”

Breakout and Poster Sessions

Rob Pred, TLC Senior Faculty Fellow and associate professor of statistics, leading a breakout session at #TLCFC14.

Rob Pred, TLC Senior Faculty Fellow and associate professor of statistics, leading a breakout session at #TLCFC14.

Morning and afternoon breakout sessions focused on strategies for applying the seven principles from How Learning Works and were led by members of the Temple University Provost’s Teaching Academy. Click here to read summaries of each session.

The poster session asked faculty to contribute their best teaching practices and educational models. Forty submissions came from educators affiliated with regional institutions such as Villanova, Philadelphia University, and University of the Sciences. Twenty-six posters were selected for presentation.

Conference attendees voted and selected “The Experimental Classroom: Integrating ecological literacy and teacher education,” by Rowan University’s Andrea Kornbluh, as this year’s best poster. Her prize was an iPad mini. Kornbluh’s poster offered that teaching ecological literacy to science education students would create a snowball effect and lead to widespread and lasting understanding of “the relationship between ecology and today’s environmental challenges.”

Temple University's 12th Annual Faculty Conference on Teaching Excellence

Temple University’s 12th Annual Faculty Conference on Teaching Excellence (#TLCFC14).

Looking Forward

We’re already gearing up for our 2015 event, taking place January 8! If there is anything you would like to see at our next conference, leave a comment below, email us at tlc@temple.edu, or tweet us @TempleTLC.

- – -

This blog will only allow those with a Temple University account to comment directly on the blog. If you do not have a Temple University account, we would still like to hear from you. Please feel free to share with the EDvice community by clicking here!

Share and Enjoy:
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • RSS
  • email
  • PDF
  • Print
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment